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      Hallazgo de Hepatozoon y otros hemotrópicos en caninos domésticos del municipio Sucre, estado Sucre, Venezuela Translated title: First discovery of Hepatozoon and other hemotropics in canine domestic of the Sucre municipality, Sucre State, Venezuela

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          Abstract

          Los hemotrópicos son entidades patológicas que afectan a caninos domésticos y salvajes, así como a humanos; su distribución geográfica es mundial. Con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de hemotrópicos en caninos domésticos de las comunidades Cancamure II, Guaranache I y Vega El Limón, de la parroquia San Juan, municipio Sucre, estado Sucre, Venezuela, se tomaron muestras sanguíneas a 65 caninos, de todas las edades, sin distinción de raza ni sexo, previo consentimiento informado de sus propietarios. Para el diagnóstico parasitológico se utilizó el examen directo, extendidos sanguíneos y de capa blanca teñidos con Hemacolor®, también se empleó la técnica de concentración de Knott modificada. De los 65 caninos estudiados, 39 resultaron positivos para hemotrópicos, representando una prevalencia de 60,00%. Entre los hemotrópicos encontrados, Ehrlichia canis resultó ser la especie más común en los caninos con una prevalencia de 89,70%, seguido por Anaplasma platys (10,20%), Dirofilaria immitis (7,70%) y Hepatozoon canis (2,60%). La comunidad más afectada por Ehrlichia canis fue Guaranache I con el 48,60% de los casos. Los valores hematológicos concordaron con lo esperado para cada hemotrópico; en el caso particular de la hepatozoonosis, el canino presentó una leucocitosis de 18,3x10(9)/L y linfocitosis leve (53,80%); sin embargo, no presentó ningún signo patognomónico. La elevada prevalencia de Ehrlichia canis en estas comunidades representa un riesgo epidemiológico para la población canina y las personas de estas comunidades. El hallazgo de Hepatozoon canis representa un importante aporte epidemiológico de la enfermedad en el municipio Sucre, siendo este el primer caso reportado en el oriente venezolano.

          Translated abstract

          Hemotropics are pathogens that affect domestic and wild dogs as well as humans worldwide. In this study we determined the prevalence of hemotropics in domestic dogs in the Cancamure II, Vega El Limón and Guaranache communities in the parish of San Juan, Sucre Municipality, Sucre state, Venezuela. Blood samples of 65 dogs of all ages, regardless of race or sex, were collected with the informed consent of their owners. Parasitological diagnosis was performed using direct examination, as well as blood and buffy coat smears stained with Hemacolor®. The modified Knott´s concentration technique was also used. Of the 65 dogs studied 39 (60%) tested positive for hemotropics, and of these Ehrlichia canis was the most common species with a prevalence of 89.7%, followed by Anaplasma platys (10.2%), Dirofilaria immitis (7.7%) and Hepatozoon canis (2.6%). The community most affected by Ehrlichia canis was Guaranache with 48.6% of the total number of cases. Hematologic values were consistent with expected values for each hemotropic. As regards the hepatozoonosis, the dog showed a leukocytosis of 18.3x10(9)/L and mild lymphocytosis (53.8%), but did not show any pathognomonic symptoms. The high prevalence of Ehrlichia canis in these communities represents an epidemiological risk both for the dog populations and human inhabitants. The presence of Hepatozoon canis also represents an important contribution to the epidemiology of hepatozoonosis in Sucre Municipality, as this is the first report of this disease in eastern Venezuela.

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          Parasitología y enfermedades parasitárias de los animales domésticos

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            Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from Grenada.

            To identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for Ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). In 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for E. canis, respectively. In 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and PCR. DNA of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, and Bartonella sp. were identified in 18 (24.7%), 14 (19.2%), 5 (7%), 5 (7%), and 1 (1.4%) dogs, respectively. Six (8.2%) dogs were seropositive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. All dogs were seronegative and PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp. Coinfection with two or three pathogens was observed in eight dogs. Partial 16S rRNA E. canis and A. platys sequences were identical to sequences in GenBank. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from the Grenadian H. canis were identical to each other and had one possible mismatch (ambiguous base) from H. canis detected from Spain and Brazil. Grenadian B. c. vogeli sequences were identical to B. c. vogeli from Brazil and Japan. All of the detected pathogens are transmitted, or suspected to be transmitted, by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Results of this study indicate that dogs from Grenada are infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens; therefore, tick-borne diseases should be included as differentials for dogs exhibiting thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, fever, or lethargy. One pathogen, E. canis, is also of potential public health significance.
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              Public health aspects of dirofilariasis in the United States.

              Coin lesions in the human lung present significant differential diagnostic problems to the physician. There are at least 20 known causes of such lesions, including neoplastic lesions, infectious diseases, and granulomas. The human medical literature contains many misconceptions about the life cycle of Dirofilaria immitis, including the method of entry of the infective-stage larvae and the development of the young adult worm. These misconceptions have obscured the recognition of the clinical presentation of pulmonary dirofilariasis and the potential for D. immitis to lodge in many other areas of the human body besides the lung. Exposure to infective larvae of D. immitis is more common in humans than is currently recognized. Reported cases in humans reflect the prevalence in the canine population in areas of the United States. The veterinary literature provides compelling evidence that D. immitis is a vascular parasite, not an intracardiac one. Its presence in the right ventricle is a post-mortem artifact, because it has never been shown to be there by echocardiography or angiography in a living dog, even though these techniques have demonstrated adult D. immitis in the pulmonary, femoral, and hepatic arteries; posterior vena cava; and right atrium of live dogs. Physicians have taken the name "heartworm" literally, believing that the worm lives in the heart and only after it dies does it embolize to the pulmonary artery. However, the coin lesion is spherical in shape, not pyramidal, as embolic infarcts to the lung in humans are known to be. The coin lesion is an end-stage result of the parasite's death in the vascular bed of the lungs and the stimulation of a pneumonitis followed by granuloma formation. This pneumonitis phase of human pulmonary dirofilariasis is often not recognized by the radiologist because of the way pneumonitis is diagnosed and treated and because the developing nodule is obscured by the lung inflammation. Serologic methods for use in humans are needed for clinical evaluations of patients with pneumonitis living in highly enzootic D. immitis regions. As well, epidemiological surveys are needed to determine the real extent of this zoonotic infection.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                bmsa
                Boletín de Malariología y Salud Ambiental
                Bol Mal Salud Amb
                Instituto de Altos Estudios en Salud Pública Dr. Arnoldo Gabaldon
                1690-4648
                July 2015
                : 55
                : 1
                : 94-104
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad de Oriente Venezuela
                Article
                S1690-46482015000100007
                daacb475-36fb-4a72-a11a-78d15c1c4535

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1690-4648&lng=en
                Categories
                INFECTIOUS DISEASES
                PARASITOLOGY

                Parasitology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Hemotropics,dogs,hepatozoon,Ehrlichia,Hemotrópicos,caninos,hepatozoonosis

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