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      Newly Isolated Animal Pathogen Corynebacterium silvaticum Is Cytotoxic to Human Epithelial Cells

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          Abstract

          Corynebacterium silvaticum is a newly identified animal pathogen of forest animals such as roe deer and wild boars. The species is closely related to the emerging human pathogen Corynebacterium ulcerans and the widely distributed animal pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. In this study, Corynebacterium silvaticum strain W25 was characterized with respect to its interaction with human cell lines. Microscopy, measurement of transepithelial electric resistance and cytotoxicity assays revealed detrimental effects of C. silvaticum to different human epithelial cell lines and to an invertebrate animal model, Galleria mellonella larvae, comparable to diphtheria toxin-secreting C. ulcerans. Furthermore, the results obtained may indicate a considerable zoonotic potential of this newly identified species.

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          Most cited references 63

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              Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are type I transmembrane proteins involved in innate immunity by recognizing microbial conserved structures. Recent studies have shown that TLR3 recognizes dsRNA, a viral product, whereas TLR9 recognizes unmethylated CpG motifs frequently found in the genome of bacteria and viruses, but not vertebrates. TLR7 recognizes small synthetic immune modifiers including imiquimod, R-848, loxoribine, and bropirimine, all of which are already applied or promising for clinical use against viral infections and cancers. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells express TLR7 and TLR9, and respond to TLR7 and TLR9 ligands by producing a large amount of interferon (IFN-alpha). These results indicate that TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 may play an important role in detecting and combating viral infections.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                29 March 2021
                April 2021
                : 22
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Microbiology Division, Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany; jens.moeller@ 123456fau.de
                [2 ]Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, 07743 Jena, Germany; anne.busch@ 123456med.uni-jena.de (A.B.); Helmut.Hotzel@ 123456fli.de (H.H.)
                [3 ]Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Jena University Hospital, 07747 Jena, Germany
                [4 ]Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, 007743 Jena, Germany; Christian.Berens@ 123456fli.de
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: andreas.burkovski@ 123456fau.de ; Tel.: +49-9131-852-8086
                Article
                ijms-22-03549
                10.3390/ijms22073549
                8037504
                33805570
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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