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      Antimicrobial resistance, virulence genes, and genetic diversity of Salmonella enterica isolated from sausages

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          Abstract

          Salmonella is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide, and the infection with multidrug-resistant strains can cause severe diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, to detect the virulence genes, and to study the genetic diversity of isolated Salmonella strains using 16S rRNA sequences. For this, 34 Salmonella strains isolated from sausages were identified using biochemical and serological methods. Molecular tools were used to evaluate the presence of virulence genes ( orgA, sitC, sipB, spiA, iroN, and sifA) using simplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to sequence 16S rRNA genes for phylogenetic analysis. The susceptibility to 24 selected antibiotics was also studied. The results of this study showed that all isolated Salmonella were positive for targeted virulence genes and were resistant to at least one antibiotic. However, the multidrug resistance was observed in 44% of isolated strains. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences highlighted that Salmonella isolates were divided into 3 clusters and 3 sub-clusters, with a ≥98% similarity to Salmonella enterica species. From this study, we conclude that sausages are considered as a potential source of Salmonella, which could be a major risk to public health.

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          Most cited references 35

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          16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study.

          A set of oligonucleotide primers capable of initiating enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction) on a phylogenetically and taxonomically wide range of bacteria is described along with methods for their use and examples. One pair of primers is capable of amplifying nearly full-length 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from many bacterial genera; the additional primers are useful for various exceptional sequences. Methods for purification of amplified material, direct sequencing, cloning, sequencing, and transcription are outlined. An obligate intracellular parasite of bovine erythrocytes, Anaplasma marginale, is used as an example; its 16S rDNA was amplified, cloned, sequenced, and phylogenetically placed. Anaplasmas are related to the genera Rickettsia and Ehrlichia. In addition, 16S rDNAs from several species were readily amplified from material found in lyophilized ampoules from the American Type Culture Collection. By use of this method, the phylogenetic study of extremely fastidious or highly pathogenic bacterial species can be carried out without the need to culture them. In theory, any gene segment for which polymerase chain reaction primer design is possible can be derived from a readily obtainable lyophilized bacterial culture.
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            The global burden of nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis.

             B. O’Brien,  ,  Martyn Kirk (2010)
            To estimate the global burden of nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis, we synthesized existing data from laboratory-based surveillance and special studies, with a hierarchical preference to (1) prospective population-based studies, (2) "multiplier studies," (3) disease notifications, (4) returning traveler data, and (5) extrapolation. We applied incidence estimates to population projections for the 21 Global Burden of Disease regions to calculate regional numbers of cases, which were summed to provide a global number of cases. Uncertainty calculations were performed using Monte Carlo simulation. We estimated that 93.8 million cases (5th to 95th percentile, 61.8-131.6 million) of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella species occur globally each year, with 155,000 deaths (5th to 95th percentile, 39,000-303,000 deaths). Of these, we estimated 80.3 million cases were foodborne. Salmonella infection represents a considerable burden in both developing and developed countries. Efforts to reduce transmission of salmonellae by food and other routes must be implemented on a global scale.
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              Identification of a pathogenicity island required for Salmonella survival in host cells.

              We have identified a region unique to the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome that is essential for virulence in mice. This region harbors at least three genes: two (spiA and spiB) encode products that are similar to proteins found in type III secretion systems, and a third (spiR) encodes a putative regulator. A strain with a mutation in spiA was unable to survive within macrophages but displayed wild-type levels of epithelial cell invasion. The culture supernatants of the spi mutants lacked a modified form of flagellin, which was present in the supernatant of the wild-type strain. This suggests that the Spi secretory apparatus exports a protease, or a protein that can alter the activity of a secreted protease. The "pathogenicity island" harboring the spi genes may encode the virulence determinants that set Salmonella apart from other enteric pathogens.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó
                2062-8633
                June 2019
                : 9
                : 2
                : 56-61
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Team of Microbiology and Health, Laboratory of Chemistry-Biology Applied to the Environment, Moulay Ismail University Faculty of Sciences , BP. 11201 Zitoune Meknes, Morocco
                [2 ] Biotechnology Research Unit, National Institute for Agronomic Research (INRA) , BP. 415, Avenue de la Victoire, Rabat, Morocco
                [3 ] Cellular Genomics and Molecular Techniques of Investigations, Moulay Ismail University Faculty of Sciences , BP. 11201 Zitoune Meknes, Morocco
                [4 ] Laboratory of Microbiology and Hygiene of Food and Water, Pasteur Institute Morocco , 1 place Louis Pasteur, Casablanca 20100, Morocco
                [5 ] Laboratory of Bioactive Molecules, Structures and Functions, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdallah University , Fes, Morocco
                Author notes
                [*]

                Author for correspondence: abdelaziz_iaa@ 123456yahoo.fr ; Tel: +212613202939.

                Article
                10.1556/1886.2018.00035
                6563686
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes - if any - are indicated.

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Research Paper

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