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      The relationship between procrastination, perceived stress, saliva alpha-amylase level and parenting styles in Chinese first year medical students


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          Procrastination is prevalent among students today, and this negatively impacts upon their academic achievement. The current study aimed to explore the relationship between procrastination, perceived stress, saliva alpha-amylase (sAA) levels, and the parenting styles of Chinese first year medical students (MBBS).


          We recruited 140 MBBS students aged 18–22 years. Assessments included the Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students (PASS), the Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), saliva alpha-amylase level (sAA), and the Chinese version of the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) which assesses parenting style. PSS and sAA levels were assessed at week 1 (baseline), then again at week 2 and week 4.


          Male students reported higher levels of procrastination and perceived stress reactions than their female counterparts. Male students reported experiencing higher punishing/severe and rejecting (ie negative) parenting styles, while female students reported experiencing higher warm and affectionate (ie positive) parenting styles. Positive parenting styles were negatively associated with to procrastination and stress reactions, while negative parenting styles were positively associated with procrastination and delayed stress reactions among MBBS students.


          Procrastination induced stress in MBBS students, providing further evidence that procrastination enhances stress in young adulthood. Negative parenting styles, such as being punishing and rejecting, had a positive correlation with procrastination.

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          Most cited references32

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          The nature of procrastination: a meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure.

          Procrastination is a prevalent and pernicious form of self-regulatory failure that is not entirely understood. Hence, the relevant conceptual, theoretical, and empirical work is reviewed, drawing upon correlational, experimental, and qualitative findings. A meta-analysis of procrastination's possible causes and effects, based on 691 correlations, reveals that neuroticism, rebelliousness, and sensation seeking show only a weak connection. Strong and consistent predictors of procrastination were task aversiveness, task delay, self-efficacy, and impulsiveness, as well as conscientiousness and its facets of self-control, distractibility, organization, and achievement motivation. These effects prove consistent with temporal motivation theory, an integrative hybrid of expectancy theory and hyperbolic discounting. Continued research into procrastination should not be delayed, especially because its prevalence appears to be growing. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
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            A comparison of two measures of perfectionism

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              Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates.


                Author and article information

                Psychol Res Behav Manag
                Psychol Res Behav Manag
                Psychology Research and Behavior Management
                03 July 2019
                : 12
                : 489-498
                [1 ]Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Ethics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University , Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Zhongtai Securities Institute for Financial Studies, School of Mathematics, Shandong University , Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Fang PanDepartment of Medical Psychology and Medical Ethics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University , 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong250012, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +008613506412617 Email panfang@ 123456sdu.edu.cn
                © 2019 Khalid et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 03 March 2019
                : 05 June 2019
                Page count
                Tables: 5, References: 40, Pages: 10
                Original Research

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                academic procrastination,stress,saliva alpha-amylase,parenting style,medical students


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