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      Selective gelatinase inhibition reduces apoptosis and pro-inflammatory immune cell responses in Campylobacter jejuni-infected gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice

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          Increased levels of the matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (also referred to gelatinase-A and -B, respectively) can be detected in intestinal inflammation. We have recently shown that selective gelatinase blockage by the synthetic compound RO28-2653 ameliorates acute murine ileitis and colitis. We here investigated whether RO28-2653 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in acute Campylobacter jejuni-induced enterocolitis of gnotobiotic IL-10 −/− mice generated following antibiotic treatment. Mice were perorally infected with C. jejuni (day 0) and either treated with RO28-2653 (75 mg/kg body weight/day) or placebo from day 1 until day 6 post infection (p.i.) by gavage. Irrespective of the treatment, infected mice displayed comparable pathogen loads within the gastrointestinal tract. Following RO28-2653 administration, however, infected mice exhibited less severe symptoms such as bloody diarrhea as compared to placebo controls. Furthermore, less distinct apoptosis but higher numbers of proliferating cells could be detected in the colon of RO28-2653-treated as compared to placebo-treated mice at day 7 p.i. Remarkably, gelatinase blockage resulted in lower numbers of T- and B-lymphocytes as well as macrophages and monocytes in the colonic mucosa of C. jejuni-infected gnotobiotic IL-10 −/− mice. Taken together, synthetic gelatinase inhibition exerts anti-inflammatory effects in experimental campylobacteriosis.

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          Matrix metalloproteinases: biologic activity and clinical implications.

          Tumor progression is a complex, multistage process by which a normal cell undergoes genetic changes that result in phenotypic alterations and the acquisition of the ability to spread and colonize distant sites in the body. Although many factors regulate malignant tumor growth and spread, interactions between a tumor and its surrounding microenvironment result in the production of important protein products that are crucial to each step of tumor progression. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of degradative enzymes with clear links to malignancy. These enzymes are associated with tumor cell invasion of the basement membrane and stroma, blood vessel penetration, and metastasis. They have more recently been implicated in primary and metastatic tumor growth and angiogenesis, and they may even have a role in tumor promotion. This review outlines our current understanding of the MMP family, including the association of particular MMPs with malignant phenotypes and the role of MMPs in specific steps of the metastatic cascade. As scientific understanding of the MMPs has advanced, therapeutic strategies that capitalize on blocking the enzymes have rapidly developed. The preclinical and clinical evolution of the synthetic MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) is also examined, with the discussion encompassing important methodologic issues associated with determining clinical efficacy of MMPIs and other novel therapeutic agents.
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            Gram-negative bacteria aggravate murine small intestinal Th1-type immunopathology following oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

            Oral infection of susceptible mice with Toxoplasma gondii results in Th1-type immunopathology in the ileum. We investigated gut flora changes during ileitis and determined contributions of gut bacteria to intestinal inflammation. Analysis of the intestinal microflora revealed that ileitis was accompanied by increasing bacterial load, decreasing species diversity, and bacterial translocation. Gram-negative bacteria identified as Escherichia coli and Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. accumulated in inflamed ileum at high concentrations. Prophylactic or therapeutic administration of ciprofloxacin and/or metronidazole ameliorated ileal immunopathology and reduced intestinal NO and IFN-gamma levels. Most strikingly, gnotobiotic mice in which cultivable gut bacteria were removed by quintuple antibiotic treatment did not develop ileitis after Toxoplasma gondii infection. A reduction in total numbers of lymphocytes was observed in the lamina propria of specific pathogen-free (SPF), but not gnotobiotic, mice upon development of ileitis. Relative numbers of CD4(+) T cells did not differ in naive vs infected gnotobiotic or SPF mice, but infected SPF mice showed a significant increase in the frequencies of activated CD4(+) T cells compared with gnotobiotic mice. Furthermore, recolonization with total gut flora, E. coli, or Bacteroides/Prevotella spp., but not Lactobacillus johnsonii, induced immunopathology in gnotobiotic mice. Animals recolonized with E. coli and/or total gut flora, but not L. johnsonii, showed elevated ileal NO and/or IFN-gamma levels. In conclusion, Gram-negative bacteria, i.e., E. coli, aggravate pathogen-induced intestinal Th1-type immunopathology. Thus, pathogen-induced acute ileitis may prove useful to study bacteria-host interactions in small intestinal inflammation and to test novel therapies based on modulation of gut flora.
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              Matrix Metalloproteinases: A Review

              Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of nine or more highly homologous Zn(++)-endopeptidases that collectively cleave most if not all of the constituents of the extracellular matrix. The present review discusses in detail the primary structures and the overlapping yet distinct substrate specificities of MMPs as well as the mode of activation of the unique MMP precursors. The regulation of MMP activity at the transcriptional level and at the extracellular level (precursor activation, inhibition of activated, mature enzymes) is also discussed. A final segment of the review details the current knowledge of the involvement of MMP in specific developmental or pathological conditions, including human periodontal diseases.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó
                1 December 2014
                16 December 2014
                : 4
                : 4 ( otherID: N2K345420864 )
                : 213-222
                [ 1 ] Charité — University Medicine Berlin CC5, Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin Hindenburgdamm 27 D-12203 Berlin Germany
                [ 2 ] Charité — University Medicine Berlin Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology/Research Center ImmunoSciences (RCIS) Berlin Germany
                Original Article

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                matrix metalloproteinases,gelatinases,RO28-2653,synthetic gelatinase blockage, Campylobacter jejuni ,gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice,acute ulcerative enterocolitis,apoptosis,pro-inflammatory immune cell responses,proliferating cells


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