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      Higher-order organization of complex networks

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          Abstract

          Networks are a fundamental tool for understanding and modeling complex systems in physics, biology, neuroscience, engineering, and social science. Many networks are known to exhibit rich, lower-order connectivity patterns that can be captured at the level of individual nodes and edges. However, higher-order organization of complex networks---at the level of small network subgraphs---remains largely unknown. Here we develop a generalized framework for clustering networks based on higher-order connectivity patterns. This framework provides mathematical guarantees on the optimality of obtained clusters and scales to networks with billions of edges. The framework reveals higher-order organization in a number of networks including information propagation units in neuronal networks and hub structure in transportation networks. Results show that networks exhibit rich higher-order organizational structures that are exposed by clustering based on higher-order connectivity patterns.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Fast unfolding of communities in large networks

          We propose a simple method to extract the community structure of large networks. Our method is a heuristic method that is based on modularity optimization. It is shown to outperform all other known community detection method in terms of computation time. Moreover, the quality of the communities detected is very good, as measured by the so-called modularity. This is shown first by identifying language communities in a Belgian mobile phone network of 2.6 million customers and by analyzing a web graph of 118 million nodes and more than one billion links. The accuracy of our algorithm is also verified on ad-hoc modular networks. .
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            Maps of random walks on complex networks reveal community structure

            To comprehend the multipartite organization of large-scale biological and social systems, we introduce a new information theoretic approach that reveals community structure in weighted and directed networks. The method decomposes a network into modules by optimally compressing a description of information flows on the network. The result is a map that both simplifies and highlights the regularities in the structure and their relationships. We illustrate the method by making a map of scientific communication as captured in the citation patterns of more than 6000 journals. We discover a multicentric organization with fields that vary dramatically in size and degree of integration into the network of science. Along the backbone of the network -- including physics, chemistry, molecular biology, and medicine -- information flows bidirectionally, but the map reveals a directional pattern of citation from the applied fields to the basic sciences.
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              Structure and function of the feed-forward loop network motif.

               S Mangan,  U Alon (2011)
              Engineered systems are often built of recurring circuit modules that carry out key functions. Transcription networks that regulate the responses of living cells were recently found to obey similar principles: they contain several biochemical wiring patterns, termed network motifs, which recur throughout the network. One of these motifs is the feed-forward loop (FFL). The FFL, a three-gene pattern, is composed of two input transcription factors, one of which regulates the other, both jointly regulating a target gene. The FFL has eight possible structural types, because each of the three interactions in the FFL can be activating or repressing. Here, we theoretically analyze the functions of these eight structural types. We find that four of the FFL types, termed incoherent FFLs, act as sign-sensitive accelerators: they speed up the response time of the target gene expression following stimulus steps in one direction (e.g., off to on) but not in the other direction (on to off). The other four types, coherent FFLs, act as sign-sensitive delays. We find that some FFL types appear in transcription network databases much more frequently than others. In some cases, the rare FFL types have reduced functionality (responding to only one of their two input stimuli), which may partially explain why they are selected against. Additional features, such as pulse generation and cooperativity, are discussed. This study defines the function of one of the most significant recurring circuit elements in transcription networks.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2016-12-26
                Article
                10.1126/science.aad9029
                1612.08447

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                Science, 353.6295 (2016): 163--166
                cs.SI cs.DM physics.soc-ph

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