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      Function of mevalonate pathway genes in the synthesis of frontalin in Chinese white pine beetle, Dendroctonus armandi (curculionidae: Scolytinae)

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          Regulation of the mevalonate pathway.

          The mevalonate pathway produces isoprenoids that are vital for diverse cellular functions, ranging from cholesterol synthesis to growth control. Several mechanisms for feedback regulation of low-density-lipoprotein receptors and of two enzymes involved in mevalonate biosynthesis ensure the production of sufficient mevalonate for several end-products. Manipulation of this regulatory system could be useful in treating certain forms of cancer as well as heart disease.
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            Pheromone production in bark beetles.

            The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Elimination of primer-dimer artifacts and genomic coamplification using a two-step SYBR green I real-time RT-PCR.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
                Arch Insect Biochem Physiol
                Wiley
                0739-4462
                1520-6327
                August 2021
                June 25 2021
                August 2021
                : 107
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Forestry Northwest A and F University Yangling Shaanxi China
                [2 ]State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro‐Bioresources College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University Guangzhou Guangdong China
                Article
                10.1002/arch.21828
                dad959a0-dbca-48dd-b29a-7adf8a7c253c
                © 2021

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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