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      Insecticides and mosquito-borne disease.

      Nature

      Aldehyde Oxidase, Aldehyde Oxidoreductases, genetics, Animals, Culex, enzymology, parasitology, Elephantiasis, Filarial, transmission, Esterases, Female, Insect Vectors, Insecticide Resistance, Insecticides, Wuchereria bancrofti, physiology

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          Most cited references 11

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          The molecular basis of two contrasting metabolic mechanisms of insecticide resistance.

          The esterase-based insecticide resistance mechanisms characterised to date predominantly involve elevation of activity through gene amplification allowing increased levels of insecticide sequestration, or point mutations within the esterase structural genes which change their substrate specificity. The amplified esterases are subject to various types of gene regulation in different insect species. In contrast, elevation of glutathione S-transferase activity involves upregulation of multiple enzymes belonging to one or more glutathione S-transferase classes or more rarely upregulation of a single enzyme. There is no evidence of insecticide resistance associated with gene amplification in this enzyme class. The biochemical and molecular basis of these two metabolically-based insecticide resistance mechanisms is reviewed.
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            Mosquito carboxylesterases: a review of the molecular biology and biochemistry of a major insecticide resistance mechanism.

            The major mechanism of organophosphorus insecticide resistance in Culex mosquitoes involves the elevation of one or more esterases. The general mechanism underlying this resistance is the amplification of the structural genes. This review covers the classification of the mosquito esterases in the context of classical esterase nomenclature. The function of the amplified esterases and the structure of the amplified DNA on which they occur are also described. Implications of information on the esterase amplicons are discussed in relation to the evolution and migration of insecticide resistance in Culex.
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              Worldwide migration of amplified insecticide resistance genes in mosquitoes.

              In Culex pipiens, overproduction of nonspecific esterases is a common mechanism of resistance to organophosphate insecticides. The esterases are attributed to closely linked loci named A and B according to substrate preference, and overproduction of all esterases B is due to gene amplification. Distribution of electrophoretically distinct variants of overproduced esterases A and B is geographically restricted, with the exception of esterases A2 and B2, always found together throughout at least three continents. To determine whether this situation is due to migration or to a high mutation rate, esterase B structural genes and their flanking regions were compared by sequence and/or restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Whereas structural genes were similar, flanking regions of electrophoretically dissimilar esterases B varied considerably. In contrast, flanking sequences of esterases B2 from different geographical locations (Africa, Asia, North America) were identical. These results suggest that amplified esterase B2 genes originated from an initial event that has subsequently spread organophosphate insecticide resistance by migration.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                11069167
                10.1038/35039671

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