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      The tree snail on Rota Island, Northern Mariana Islands, long identified as Partula gibba (Partulidae), is a different species

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          Abstract

          Tree snails in the family Partulidae are widespread across the tropical Pacific, with endemic species occurring on most high islands. Partulid species have faced catastrophic range reductions and extinctions due primarily to introduced predators. Consequently, most extant species are threatened with imminent extinction. The U.S. administered Mariana Islands, consisting of Guam in the South and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) in the north, historically harbored six endemic partulid species, half of which are thought to be extinct. While conducting a phylogenetic assessment of Partula gibba , an extant tree-snail with a range spanning at least seven islands within the archipelago, it was discovered that what has been identified as P. gibba on the island of Rota is a misidentified cryptic species. Here we use molecular phylogenetics, shell morphometrics and reproductive anatomy to describe it as a new species, Partula lutaensis sp. nov.. Because the new species has suffered population declines and has a restricted range, consisting solely of the small island of Rota, we highlight the urgent need for conservation measures.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Not knowing, not recording, not listing: numerous unnoticed mollusk extinctions.

          Mollusks are the group most affected by extinction according to the 2007 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, despite the group having not been evaluated since 2000 and the quality of information for invertebrates being far lower than for vertebrates. Altogether 302 species and 11 subspecies are listed as extinct on the IUCN Red List. We reevaluated mollusk species listed as extinct through bibliographic research and consultation with experts. We found that the number of known mollusk extinctions is almost double that of the IUCN Red List. Marine habitats seem to have experienced few extinctions, which suggests that marine species may be less extinction prone than terrestrial and freshwater species. Some geographic and ecologic biases appeared. For instance, the majority of extinctions in freshwater occurred in the United States. More than 70% of known mollusk extinctions took place on oceanic islands, and a one-third of these extinctions may have been caused precipitously by introduction of the predatory snail Euglandina rosea. We suggest that assessment of the conservation status of invertebrate species is neglected in the IUCN Red List and not managed in the same way as for vertebrate species.
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            Evolution and Extinction of Partulidae, Endemic Pacific Island Land Snails

             R. H. Cowie (1992)
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              Molecular evolutionary relationships between partulid land snails of the Pacific.

              Adaptive radiation of partulid land snails in the tropical Pacific has produced an extraordinary array of distinctive morphological, ecological and behavioural types. Here we use part of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster to investigate the relationships within and between the three partulid genera, Partula, Samoana and Eua. The genera cluster separately, with Samoana and Partula forming monophyletic groups. With one exception, the molecular data generally support the previous generic classification based on genital morphology, even in species that show a number of characteristics otherwise atypical of the genus. Convergent evolution explains morphological similarities between members of different genera. The phylogeny suggests that Samoana has colonized the Pacific from west to east, originating in the area where Eua, believed to be the most ancient partulid genus, is found. An unexplained anomaly is the reported occurrence of a single species of Samoana in the Mariana Islands of the western Pacific. The genus Partula has a disjunct distribution, encompassing islands both to the east and west of the range occupied by Eua. Partula seems to have spread both eastward and westward after the splitting of the Partula lineage.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2021
                17 May 2021
                : 1037
                : 105-118
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Kewalo Marine Laboratory, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, 41 Ahui St., Honolulu, 96813 Hawai‘i, USA University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Honolulu United States of America
                [2 ] Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife, State of Hawai‘i, 1151 Punchbowl St. Rm. 325, Honolulu, 96813 Hawai‘i, USA Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife Honolulu United States of America
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: David R. Sischo ( david.r.sischo@ 123456hawaii.gov )

                Academic editor: T. Backeljau

                Article
                56303
                10.3897/zookeys.1037.56303
                8144162
                David R. Sischo, Michael G. Hadfield

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Funded by: University of Hawaii 6114445 501100000314 ABBEY AWARDS http://doi.org/10.13039/501100000314
                Categories
                Research Article
                Animalia
                Gastropoda
                Invertebrata
                Mollusca
                Partulidae
                Stylommatophora
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Micronesia
                Pacific

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