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      Close relationship between the genera Sinhomidia and Homidia (Collembola, Entomobryidae) revealed by adult and first instar characters, with description of a new Sinhomidia species

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          A third species of the genus Sinhomidia is described from South China: S. uniseta sp. nov. This new species can be distinguished from the two other species of the genus by the following characters: colour pattern, single labial chaeta M, chaetotaxy on terga and ventral tube, unguis with three inner teeth, and 15 clypeal ciliated chaetae. Also, the chaetotaxy of the first instar of Sinhomidia is described for the first time in the present paper, and confirms the close relationship between Sinhomidia and Homidia . A key to species of Sinhomidia is provided.

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          Systematic revision of Entomobryidae (Collembola) by integrating molecular and new morphological evidence

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            Molecular phylogeny reveals independent origins of body scales in Entomobryidae (Hexapoda: Collembola).

            Entomobryidae is the largest family in Collembola but relationships within the family have never been subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. Within the family, body scales are present in many species, and are fundamental in the classification at the subfamilial and tribal levels. A molecular phylogeny was reconstructed using the nuclear 18SrRNA and partial 28SrRNA and the mitochondrial 16SrRNA to examine the evolution of scales across Entomobryidae subfamilies. These datasets were analyzed separately and combined, with parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian algorithms. Monophyly of Orchesellinae was not recovered, and it was split into a scaled clade and an unscaled clade, contradicting to all recent taxonomic conceptions. The monophyly of Entomobryinae, Seirinae and Lepidocyrtinae is well supported however within Entomobryinae, the polyphyly of Entomobryini and Willowsiini implies that classification using the presence/absence of scales is not valid. Analyses of ancestral character state reconstruction in Entomobryidae indicate that the presence of body scales have evolved independently at least five times, with a loss of scales occurring independently at least twice. A revision of the family Entomobryidae on molecular and morphological basis is clearly needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Molecular phylogeny supports S-chaetae as a key character better than jumping organs and body scales in classification of Entomobryoidea (Collembola)

              The jumping organ (furcula) is the most characteristic structure among collembolans, and it is of great taxonomical values at higher levels. The largest superfamily Entomobryoidea is traditionally classified into four families only by the morphology of the furcula. Actually, many taxa among these families are strikingly similar in morphology without considering furcula. The phylogeny of Entomobryoidea was reconstructed here based on mitochondrial and ribosomal fragments. This indicated that both Paronellidae and Cyphoderidae were ingroups within Entomobryidae with the former polyphyletic. Topology tests, which used the likelihood and Bayesian approaches, also rejected the traditional hypotheses relying on furcula morphology. Further ancestral state reconstructions have revealed that traditional taxonomical characters, i.e., furcula and body scales, had multiple independent origins in Entomobryoidea whereas tergal specialized chaetae (S-chaetae) exhibited strong phylogenetic signals. By integrating both molecular and morphological evidence, the results of this study drastically undermine the present classification of Entomobryoidea. Tergal S-chaetotaxic pattern in combination with other characters are more reasonable in taxonomy at suprageneric levels than convergent furcula. This study provides new insights of the jumping organ, which could be adaptively modified during evolution of Collembola.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35BB1D5CE89668537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2019
                20 August 2019
                : 872
                : 41-55
                Affiliations
                [1 ] School of Life Sciences, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang province 318000, China Taizhou University Taizhou China
                [2 ] Taizhou Foreign Language School, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000, China Taizhou Foreign Language School Taizhou China
                [3 ] Wuyanling National Nature Reserve, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325500, China Wuyanling National Nature Reserve Wenzhou China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Zhi-Xiang Pan ( pzx1118@ 123456hotmail.com )

                Academic editor: L. Deharveng

                Article
                29815
                10.3897/zookeys.872.29815
                6711937
                Zhi-Xiang Pan, Chen-Chong Si, Shu-Sheng Zhang

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Entomobryidae
                Taxonomy
                China

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