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      Current Trends in Understanding and Managing Equine Rhodococcosis

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          Abstract

          Simple Summary

          Pneumonia caused by soil bacteria Rhodococcus equi occurs in the foals of most horse breeds all over the world, posing a significant challenge for veterinary practitioners. For this reason, many researchers constantly try to find new solutions for successful prevention and management of the disease, but it still remains poorly controlled. This paper presents some promising ideas published during the last decade. Several strategies mentioned below have already been introduced to clinical practice like a variety of immune stimulators, but many others are still under academic considerations. The compilation of these materials may help to understand the complexity of the problem and show the directions for effective practice in the future.

          Abstract

          The aim of this review was to summarize studies on equine rhodococcosis over the last decade. For many years Rhodococcus equi has remained one of the major health challenges in the equine breeding industry worldwide. Recently, many novel approaches and ideas have been described and some of them were initially implemented into the clinical practice. This study reviews a variety of new information about neonatal susceptibility, clinical appearance, considered and applied diagnostic procedures and treatment alternatives, factors limiting accurate prognosis, ideas regarding environmental management and prophylaxis considerations. Although multiple research were conducted, the main problems such as high morbidity and mortality, a lack of reliable prevention strategies and treatment limitations are still unresolved and require further scientific effort.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Rhodococcus equi: the many facets of a pathogenic actinomycete.

          Rhodococcus equi is a soil-dwelling pathogenic actinomycete that causes pulmonary and extrapulmonary pyogranulomatous infections in a variety of animal species and people. Young foals are particularly susceptible and develop a life-threatening pneumonic disease that is endemic at many horse-breeding farms worldwide. R. equi is a facultative intracellular parasite of macrophages that replicates within a modified phagocytic vacuole. Its pathogenicity depends on a virulence plasmid that promotes intracellular survival by preventing phagosome-lysosome fusion. Species-specific tropism of R. equi for horses, pigs and cattle appears to be determined by host-adapted virulence plasmid types. Molecular epidemiological studies of these plasmids suggest that human R. equi infection is zoonotic. Analysis of the recently determined R. equi genome sequence has identified additional virulence determinants on the bacterial chromosome. This review summarizes our current understanding of the clinical aspects, biology, pathogenesis and immunity of this fascinating microbe with plasmid-governed infectivity.
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            Diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of infections caused by Rhodococcus equi in foals.

            Rhodococcus equi, a gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen, is one of the most common causes of pneumonia in foals. Although R. equi can be cultured from the environment of virtually all horse farms, the clinical disease in foals is endemic at some farms, sporadic at others, and unrecognized at many. On farms where the disease is endemic, costs associated with morbidity and mortality attributable to R. equi may be very high. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide recommendations regarding the diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of infections caused by R. equi in foals. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
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              Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Rhodococcus equi infections in foals.

              Since the 1986 Rhodococcus equi workshop, there have been major breakthroughs in understanding the epidemiology of, the virulence of, and the immune response to, this intriguing pathogen. However, with the exception of the use of hyperimmune plasma for the prevention of the disease (Martens et al., 1989; Madigan et al., 1991) the clinical aspects of R. equi infections have essentially remained unchanged. This article reviews the various clinical manifestations and summarizes recent advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of R. equi infections in foals.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Animals (Basel)
                Animals (Basel)
                animals
                Animals : an Open Access Journal from MDPI
                MDPI
                2076-2615
                18 October 2020
                October 2020
                : 10
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-787 Warszawa, Poland; lucjan_witkowski@ 123456sggw.edu.pl
                [2 ]Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 1, 02-787 Warszawa, Poland; anna_cywinska@ 123456sggw.edu.pl
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: alicja.rakowska@ 123456wp.pl
                Article
                animals-10-01910
                10.3390/ani10101910
                7603097
                33081047
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                foals’ pneumonia, rhodococcus equi, rhodococcosis

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