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      Increased Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Obesity in Histamine-Deficient Mice

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          Abstract

          Background and Aim: The neurotransmitter histamine is involved in the regulation of appetite and in the development of age-related obesity in mice. Furthermore, histamine is a mediator of the anorexigenic action of leptin. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible role of histamine in the development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Methods: Histamine-deficient histidine decarboxylase knock-out (HDC-KO) mice and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice were given either a standard diet (STD) or HFD for 8 weeks. Body weight, 24-hour caloric intake, epididymal adipose tissue size, plasma leptin concentration and quantitative expression of leptin receptor (Ob-R) mRNA were measured. Results: Both HDC-KO and WT mice fed an HFD for 8 weeks increased their body weight significantly more than STD-fed mice. A significant difference in body weight gain between HDC-KO mice fed an HFD or an STD was seen after 2 weeks, whereas a significant difference in body weight gain was first observed after 5 weeks in WT mice. After 8 weeks 24-hour caloric intake was significantly lower in HFD- than in STD-fed WT mice. In HDC-KO mice no difference in caloric intake was observed between HFD- and STD-fed mice. After 8 weeks epididymal adipose tissue size and plasma leptin concentration had increased significantly in HFD-fed WT and HDC-KO mice compared to their STD-fed controls. Epididymal adipose tissue size was higher in HDC-KO than WT mice, both in STD- and HFD-fed mice. A significant decrease in Ob-R mRNA in HFD-fed HDC-KO mice compared to STD-fed HDC-KO mice was observed, while no such difference was observed in WT mice. Conclusion: Based on our results, we conclude that histamine plays a role in the development of HFD-induced obesity.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Diet-induced type II diabetes in C57BL/6J mice.

          We investigated the effects of diet-induced obesity on glucose metabolism in two strains of mice, C57BL/6J and A/J. Twenty animals from each strain received ad libitum exposure to a high-fat high-simple-carbohydrate diet or standard Purina Rodent Chow for 6 mo. Exposure to the high-fat, high-simple-carbohydrate, low-fiber diet produced obesity in both A/J and C57BL/6J mice. Whereas obesity was associated with only moderate glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in A/J mice, obese C57BL/6J mice showed clear-cut diabetes with fasting blood glucose levels of greater than 240 mg/dl and blood insulin levels of greater than 150 microU/ml. C57BL/6J mice showed larger glycemic responses to stress and epinephrine in the lean state than AJ mice, and these responses were exaggerated by obesity. These data suggest that the C57BL/6J mouse carries a genetic predisposition to develop non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes. Furthermore, altered glycemic response to adrenergic stimulation may be a biologic marker for this genetic predisposition to develop type II diabetes.
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            Development of high fat diet-induced obesity and leptin resistance in C57Bl/6J mice.

            To investigate the development of high fat diet-induced obesity and leptin resistance. Two experiments were carried out in this study. Firstly, we fed the mice with a high- or low-fat diet for up to 19 weeks to examine a progressive development of high fat diet-induced obesity. Secondly, we examined peripheral and central exogenous leptin sensitivity in mice fed high- or low-fat diets for 1, 8 or 19 weeks. A total of 168 C57BL/6J mice (3 weeks old) were used in this study. In the first experiment, we measured the body weight, energy intake, adipose tissue mass, tibia bone length, and plasma leptin in mice fed either a high- or low-fat diet for 1, 8, 15 and 19 weeks. In the second experiment, body weight change and cumulative energy intake were measured at 6 h intervals for 72 h after leptin injection in mice fed a high- or low-fat diet for 1, 8 or 19 weeks. The results from the first experiment suggested that the development of high fat diet-induced obesity in mice could be divided into early, middle and late stages. Compared with the mice fed a low-fat diet, the mice fed a high-fat diet showed a gradually increased body weight (+5.2%), fat storage (epididymal plus perirenal; +6.7%) and plasma leptin (+18%) at 1 week; +11.4%, +68.1%, and +223%, respectively, at 8 weeks; and +30.5%, +141%, and +458%, respectively, at 19 weeks. Energy intake of high fat diet-fed mice was equal to that of low fat diet-fed controls for the first 3 weeks; it fell below control levels over the next 5 week period, but began to increase gradually after 8 weeks of high-fat diet feeding and then increased dramatically from 15 weeks to be 14% higher than that of controls after 19 weeks. The results from our second experiment showed that: (1) after 1 week of feeding, the mice fed a high-fat diet were sensitive to a 2 microg/g (body weight) intraperitoneal (i. p.) injection of leptin, with no differences in body weight change or cumulative energy intake post-injection; (2) after 8 weeks of feeding, the mice fed a high-fat diet were insensitive to 2 microg/g (body weight) i.p. leptin, but were sensitive to a 0.1 microg intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of leptin; (3) after 19 weeks of feeding, the mice fed a high-fat diet were insensitive to 0. 1 microg i.c.v. leptin, but were sensitive to a high dose of 2 microg i.c.v. leptin. The present study demonstrated that the development of high fat diet-induced obesity (19 weeks) in C57 B1/6J mice could be divided into three stages: (1) an early stage in response to high-fat diet that mice were sensitive to exogenous leptin; (2) a reduced food intake stage when mice had an increase in leptin production and still retained central leptin sensitivity; and (3) an increased food intake stage, accompanied by a reduction of central leptin sensitivity.
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              Mice lacking histidine decarboxylase exhibit abnormal mast cells.

              Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) synthesizes histamine from histidine in mammals. To evaluate the role of histamine, we generated HDC-deficient mice using a gene targeting method. The mice showed a histamine deficiency and lacked histamine-synthesizing activity from histidine. These HDC-deficient mice are viable and fertile but exhibit a decrease in the numbers of mast cells while the remaining mast cells show an altered morphology and reduced granular content. The amounts of mast cell granular proteases were tremendously reduced. The HDC-deficient mice provide a unique and promising model for studying the role of histamine in a broad range of normal and disease processes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2006
                October 2006
                13 November 2006
                : 83
                : 5-6
                : 289-294
                Affiliations
                aCluster for Molecular Imaging, Department of Medical Physiology, University of Copenhagen, bDepartment of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, and cDepartment of Surgery C, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; dResearch Center for Allergy and Immunology, RIKEN Institute, Yokohama, Japan
                Article
                95339 Neuroendocrinology 2006;83:289–294
                10.1159/000095339
                16926531
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 33, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

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