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Facile Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Antimicrobial Screening of a New Series of 2,4,6-Trisubstituted-s-triazine Based Compounds

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      Abstract

      A series of new 2,4,6-trisubstituted- s-triazine was synthesized, assessed for antimicrobial activity, and characterized by FTIR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, and elemental analysis. The tested compounds, 4d, 4g, 4h, 4k, and 4n, have shown considerable in vitro antibacterial efficacy with reference to the standard drug ciprofloxacin (MIC 3.125  μgmL −1 against B. subtilis, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae). It was observed that compounds 4d and 4h displayed equipotent antibacterial efficacy against B. subtilis (MIC 3.125  μgmL −1) and S. aureus (MIC 6.25  μgmL −1). The studies demonstrated that the para-fluorophenylpiperazine substituted s-triazine ( 4n) was potent and exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa with MIC of 6.25  μgmL −1 and for E. coli, it showed an MIC of 3.125  μgmL −1 equipotent with reference to the standard drug. Among all the compounds under investigation, compound 4g also demonstrated significant antifungal activity (3.125  μgmL −1) against C. albicans.

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      A brief multi-disciplinary review on antimicrobial resistance in medicine and its linkage to the global environmental microbiota

      The discovery and introduction of antimicrobial agents to clinical medicine was one of the greatest medical triumphs of the 20th century that revolutionized the treatment of bacterial infections. However, the gradual emergence of populations of antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic bacteria resulting from use, misuse, and abuse of antimicrobials has today become a major global health concern. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes have been suggested to originate from environmental bacteria, as clinically relevant resistance genes have been detected on the chromosome of environmental bacteria. As only a few new antimicrobials have been developed in the last decade, the further evolution of resistance poses a serious threat to public health. Urgent measures are required not only to minimize the use of antimicrobials for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes but also to look for alternative strategies for the control of bacterial infections. This review examines the global picture of antimicrobial resistance, factors that favor its spread, strategies, and limitations for its control and the need for continuous training of all stake-holders i.e., medical, veterinary, public health, and other relevant professionals as well as human consumers, in the appropriate use of antimicrobial drugs.
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        Recent applications of 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine and its derivatives in organic synthesis

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          Antibiotic resistance as a global threat: Evidence from China, Kuwait and the United States

          Background Antimicrobial resistance is an under-appreciated threat to public health in nations around the globe. With globalization booming, it is important to understand international patterns of resistance. If countries already experience similar patterns of resistance, it may be too late to worry about international spread. If large countries or groups of countries that are likely to leap ahead in their integration with the rest of the world – China being the standout case – have high and distinctive patterns of resistance, then a coordinated response could substantially help to control the spread of resistance. The literature to date provides only limited evidence on these issues. Methods We study the recent patterns of antibiotic resistance in three geographically separated, and culturally and economically distinct countries – China, Kuwait and the United States – to gauge the range and depth of this global health threat, and its potential for growth as globalization expands. Our primary measures are the prevalence of resistance of specific bacteria to specific antibiotics. We also propose and illustrate methods for aggregating specific "bug-drug" data. We use these aggregate measures to summarize the resistance pattern for each country and to study the extent of correlation between countries' patterns of drug resistance. Results We find that China has the highest level of antibiotic resistance, followed by Kuwait and the U.S. In a study of resistance patterns of several most common bacteria in China in 1999 and 2001, the mean prevalence of resistance among hospital-acquired infections was as high as 41% (with a range from 23% to 77%) and that among community- acquired infections was 26% (with a range from 15% to 39%). China also has the most rapid growth rate of resistance (22% average growth in a study spanning 1994 to 2000). Kuwait is second (17% average growth in a period from 1999 to 2003), and the U.S. the lowest (6% from 1999 to 2002). Patterns of resistance across the three countries are not highly correlated; the most correlated were China and Kuwait, followed by Kuwait and the U.S., and the least correlated pair was China and the U.S. Conclusion Antimicrobial resistance is a serious and growing problem in all three countries. To date, there is not strong international convergence in the countries' resistance patterns. This finding may change with the greater international travel that will accompany globalization. Future research on the determinants of drug resistance patterns, and their international convergence or divergence, should be a priority.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Institute of Pharmacy, Harish Chandra PG College, Varanasi 221 002, India
            2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Assam University, Silchar 788 011, India
            3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh 786 004, India
            Author notes

            Academic Editor: Arie Zask

            Journal
            Int J Med Chem
            Int J Med Chem
            IJMC
            International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
            Hindawi Publishing Corporation
            2090-2069
            2090-2077
            2015
            31 January 2015
            : 2015
            25802757 4329771 10.1155/2015/571836
            Copyright © 2015 Ravi Bhushan Singh et al.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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            Research Article

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