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      Ubiquitous yet Distinct Expression of Podocalyxin on Vascular Surfaces in Normal and Tumor Tissues in the Rat

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The vasculature has become an important target in the development of therapies for increasing numbers of human diseases, yet there are few reliable markers available to identify the endothelium in rodent models. We have characterized the expression, subcellular localization and accessibility of the rat pan-endothelial marker podocalyxin (podxl) using a newly developed monoclonal antibody (mAb), G278. Methods: podxl expression and accessibility to binding by G278 were determined in the rat by a variety of experimental approaches. Results: mAb G278 reliably immunostained blood vessels of all types and of every size in fresh-frozen, fixed-frozen and paraffin-embedded sections of all tissues, but did not stain lymphatic vessels. Western blotting, in vivo imaging and biodistribution analyses demonstrated that the highest levels of endothelial podxl were found in the lung and heart. We also determined that podxl is not enriched in caveolae and that its expression can be modulated in the tumor microenvironment. Conclusion: Our study shows that podxl is a better identifier of rat endothelia than are some of the more commonly used markers and that mAb G278 is a robust antibody for use not only in identifying rat blood vessels but also as a tool to elucidate podxl function.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Angiogenesis in life, disease and medicine.

          The growth of blood vessels (a process known as angiogenesis) is essential for organ growth and repair. An imbalance in this process contributes to numerous malignant, inflammatory, ischaemic, infectious and immune disorders. Recently, the first anti-angiogenic agents have been approved for the treatment of cancer and blindness. Angiogenesis research will probably change the face of medicine in the next decades, with more than 500 million people worldwide predicted to benefit from pro- or anti-angiogenesis treatments.
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            Dynamin at the Neck of Caveolae Mediates Their Budding to Form Transport Vesicles by GTP-driven Fission from the Plasma Membrane of Endothelium

            The molecular mechanisms mediating cell surface trafficking of caveolae are unknown. Caveolae bud from plasma membranes to form free carrier vesicles through a “pinching off” or fission process requiring cytosol and driven by GTP hydrolysis (Schnitzer, J.E., P. Oh, and D.P. McIntosh. 1996. Science. 274:239–242). Here, we use several independent techniques and functional assays ranging from cell-free to intact cell systems to establish a function for dynamin in the formation of transport vesicles from the endothelial cell plasma membrane by mediating fission at the neck of caveolae. This caveolar fission requires interaction with cytosolic dynamin as well as its hydrolysis of GTP. Expression of dynamin in cytosol as well as purified recombinant dynamin alone supports GTP-induced caveolar fission in a cell-free assay whereas its removal from cytosol or the addition to the cytosol of specific antibodies for dynamin inhibits this fission. Overexpression of mutant dynamin lacking normal GTPase activity not only inhibits GTP-induced fission and budding of caveolae but also prevents caveolae-mediated internalization of cholera toxin B chain in intact and permeabilized endothelial cells. Analysis of endothelium in vivo by subcellular fractionation and immunomicroscopy shows that dynamin is concentrated on caveolae, primarily at the expected site of action, their necks. Thus, through its ability to oligomerize, dynamin appears to form a structural collar around the neck of caveolae that hydrolyzes GTP to mediate internalization via the fission of caveolae from the plasma membrane to form free transport vesicles.
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              Identification and characterization of podocalyxin--the major sialoprotein of the renal glomerular epithelial cell

              The glomerular epithelial polyanion is a specialized cell surface component found on renal glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) that is rich in sialoprotein(s), as detected by staining with cationic dyes (colloidal iron, alcian blue) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). We have isolated rat glomeruli and analyzed their protein composition by SDS PAGE in 5-10% gradient gels. When the gels were stained with alcian blue or "Stains All," a single band with an apparent Mr of 140,000 was detected that also stained very prominently with silver, but not with Coomassie Blue. This band predominated in fluorograms of gels of isolated glomeruli that had been labeled in their sialic acid residues by periodate-[3H]borohydride. In lectin overlays, the 140-kilodalton (kd) band was virtually the only one that bound [125I]wheat germ agglutinin, and this binding could be prevented by predigestion with neuraminidase. [125I]Peanut lectin bound exclusively to the 140-kd band after neuraminidase treatment. An antibody was prepared that specifically recognizes only the 140-kd band by immunoprecipitation and immuneoverlay. By immunoperoxidase and immunogold techniques, it was localized to the surface coat of the glomerular epithelium and, less extensively, to that of endothelial cells. When analyzed (after electroelution from preparative SDS gels), the 140-kd band was found to contain approximately 20% hexose and approximately 4.5% sialic acid. These findings indicate that the 140-kd protein is the major sialoprotein of the glomerulus, and it is the only component of glomerular lysates with an affinity for cationic dyes and lectins identical to that defined histochemically for the epithelial polyanion in situ. Since this molecule is a major component of the cell coat or glycocalyx of the podocytes, we have called it "podocalyxin."
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2009
                June 2009
                10 January 2009
                : 46
                : 4
                : 311-324
                Affiliations
                The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, San Diego, Calif., USA
                Article
                189792 J Vasc Res 2009;46:311–324
                10.1159/000189792
                19142011
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 10, References: 42, Pages: 14
                Categories
                Research Paper

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