Although it is well documented that chronic renal failure patients are susceptible to infectious diseases, the reason for this has not been clarified. The aim of the study was to assess the antiviral natural (innate) immunity of peripheral leukocytes in 37 hemodialysis patients and compare it with that of a of control group (70 blood donors). We investigated 16 patients with anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, anti-HCV(+) and 21 patients without anti-HCV antibodies, anti-HCV(–). Methods: Innate immunity was measured using the method of direct infection of peripheral blood leukocytes with indicatory VS virus. The VS virus did not replicate in leukocytes with strong innate immunity, whereas by impaired immunity the virus multiplied to high titer. Results: Patients on hemodialysis expressed the same levels of nonspecific antiviral immunity as the control group. We found complete, partial or deficient of innate immunity respectively in 33, 52.5, 14.5% of anti-HCV(–) patients, 43, 43 and 14% of anti-HCV(+) patients, and 44, 40 and 16% of controls. Conclusions: Innate antiviral immunity was not impaired (disturbed) in chronic HD patients. The categories of innate immunity disposition in dialysis patients and the healthy population did not differ.