0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Mechanism of Action of Xiaoyao San in Treatment of Ischemic Stroke is Related to Anti-Apoptosis and Activation of PI3K/Akt Pathway

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Objective

          The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulation Xiaoyao San (XYS) has a good clinical effect in treating ischemic stroke (IS). We explored the mechanism and material basis of XYS in IS treatment.

          Methods

          Network pharmacology was used to construct a network of XYS components and IS targets. R software was used to analyze the biological process and pathway analysis of the targets of XYS in IS treatment. In vitro, a model of apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) was established to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of XYS and its influence on the expression of apoptotic protein-related genes. The affinity between the potentially active compounds in XYS and apoptotic proteins was evaluated by molecular docking.

          Results

          XYS was shown to have 136 chemical components that exert potential anti-IS activity by acting on 175 proteins. Bioinformatics analysis showed that apoptosis and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathway were the main signaling pathways of XYS. In vitro experiments showed that XYS could improve the effect of OGD/R on PC12-cell activity (EC 50 = 0.43 mg/mL) and inhibit apoptosis. The main mechanisms were related to the improvement of oxidative stress and regulation of apoptosis-related gene expression. Molecular docking showed that C22, C102 and other components in XYS had a strong affinity with apoptosis-related proteins.

          Conclusion

          Network pharmacology, in vitro experiments, and molecular docking were used, for the first time, to study the material basis and molecular mechanism of XYS in IS treatment from the perspective of multiple targets and multiple pathways. We provided a new approach for the future study of TCM formulations in the treatment of complex diseases.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 36

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease.

          Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS, e.g. nitric oxide, NO(*)) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. ROS and RNS are normally generated by tightly regulated enzymes, such as NO synthase (NOS) and NAD(P)H oxidase isoforms, respectively. Overproduction of ROS (arising either from mitochondrial electron-transport chain or excessive stimulation of NAD(P)H) results in oxidative stress, a deleterious process that can be an important mediator of damage to cell structures, including lipids and membranes, proteins, and DNA. In contrast, beneficial effects of ROS/RNS (e.g. superoxide radical and nitric oxide) occur at low/moderate concentrations and involve physiological roles in cellular responses to noxia, as for example in defence against infectious agents, in the function of a number of cellular signalling pathways, and the induction of a mitogenic response. Ironically, various ROS-mediated actions in fact protect cells against ROS-induced oxidative stress and re-establish or maintain "redox balance" termed also "redox homeostasis". The "two-faced" character of ROS is clearly substantiated. For example, a growing body of evidence shows that ROS within cells act as secondary messengers in intracellular signalling cascades which induce and maintain the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, however, ROS can also induce cellular senescence and apoptosis and can therefore function as anti-tumourigenic species. This review will describe the: (i) chemistry and biochemistry of ROS/RNS and sources of free radical generation; (ii) damage to DNA, to proteins, and to lipids by free radicals; (iii) role of antioxidants (e.g. glutathione) in the maintenance of cellular "redox homeostasis"; (iv) overview of ROS-induced signaling pathways; (v) role of ROS in redox regulation of normal physiological functions, as well as (vi) role of ROS in pathophysiological implications of altered redox regulation (human diseases and ageing). Attention is focussed on the ROS/RNS-linked pathogenesis of cancer, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease), rheumatoid arthritis, and ageing. Topics of current debate are also reviewed such as the question whether excessive formation of free radicals is a primary cause or a downstream consequence of tissue injury.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: therapeutic approaches

            Acute ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death in industrialized countries and the most frequent cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide. Despite advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, therapeutic options remain limited. Only recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for thrombolysis is currently approved for use in the treatment of this devastating disease. However, its use is limited by its short therapeutic window (three hours), complications derived essentially from the risk of hemorrhage, and the potential damage from reperfusion/ischemic injury. Two important pathophysiological mechanisms involved during ischemic stroke are oxidative stress and inflammation. Brain tissue is not well equipped with antioxidant defenses, so reactive oxygen species and other free radicals/oxidants, released by inflammatory cells, threaten tissue viability in the vicinity of the ischemic core. This review will discuss the molecular aspects of oxidative stress and inflammation in ischemic stroke and potential therapeutic strategies that target neuroinflammation and the innate immune system. Currently, little is known about endogenous counterregulatory immune mechanisms. However, recent studies showing that regulatory T cells are major cerebroprotective immunomodulators after stroke suggest that targeting the endogenous adaptive immune response may offer novel promising neuroprotectant therapies.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: role of inflammatory cells.

              Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and other forms of ischemic brain injury. Experimentally and clinically, the brain responds to ischemic injury with an acute and prolonged inflammatory process, characterized by rapid activation of resident cells (mainly microglia), production of proinflammatory mediators, and infiltration of various types of inflammatory cells (including neutrophils, different subtypes of T cells, monocyte/macrophages, and other cells) into the ischemic brain tissue. These cellular events collaboratively contribute to ischemic brain injury. Despite intense investigation, there are still numerous controversies concerning the time course of the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the brain and their pathogenic roles in ischemic brain injury. In this review, we provide an overview of the time-dependent recruitment of different inflammatory cells following focal cerebral I/R. We discuss how these cells contribute to ischemic brain injury and highlight certain recent findings and currently unanswered questions about inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                22 February 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 753-767
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Chengdu, 610072, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]School of Medical and Life Sciences, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Chengdu Sichuan, 610041, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Fang Yang Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , No. 39 Shi-er-qiao Road, Chengdu, 610075, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/Fax +86 28- 87783481 Email yfgreens2013@163.com
                Yang Zhang Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Chengdu, 610072, People’s Republic of China Email zhangyang@cdutcm.edu.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                280217
                10.2147/DDDT.S280217
                7910098
                © 2021 Xu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 1, References: 36, Pages: 15
                Categories
                Original Research

                Comments

                Comment on this article