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      Nanotechnology-Applied Curcumin for Different Diseases Therapy


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          Curcumin is a lipophilic molecule with an active ingredient in the herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric. It is used by different folks for treatment of many diseases. Recent studies have discussed poor bioavailability of curcumin because of poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. Nanotechnology is an emerging field that is potentially changing the way we can treat diseases through drug delivery with curcumin. The recent investigations established several approaches to improve the bioavailability, to increase the plasma concentration, and to enhance the cellular permeability processes of curcumin. Several types of nanoparticles have been found to be suitable for the encapsulation or loading of curcumin to improve its therapeutic effects in different diseases. Nanoparticles such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, nanogels, niosomes, cyclodextrins, dendrimers, silvers, and solid lipids are emerging as one of the useful alternatives that have been shown to deliver therapeutic concentrations of curcumin. This review shows that curcumin's therapeutic effects may increase to some extent in the presence of nanotechnology. The presented board of evidence focuses on the valuable special effects of curcumin on different diseases and candidates it for future clinical studies in the realm of these diseases.

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          Most cited references147

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          Pharmacology of Curcuma longa.

          The data reviewed indicate that extracts of Curcuma longa exhibit anti-inflammatory activity after parenteral application in standard animal models used for testing anti-inflammatory activity. It turned out that curcumin and the volatile oil are at least in part responsible for this action. It appears that when given orally, curcumin is far less active than after i.p. administration. This may be due to poor absorption, as discussed. Data on histamine-induced ulcers are controversial, and studies on the secretory activity (HCl, pepsinogen) are still lacking. In vitro, curcumin exhibited antispasmodic activity. Since there was a protective effect of extracts of Curcuma longa on the liver and a stimulation of bile secretion in animals, Curcuma longa has been advocated for use in liver disorders. Evidence for an effect on liver disease in humans is not yet available. From the facts that after oral application only traces of curcumin were found in the blood and that, on the other hand, most of the curcumin is excreted via the faeces it may be concluded that curcumin is absorbed poorly by the gastrointestinal tract and/or underlies presystemic transformation. Systemic effects therefore seem to be questionable after oral application except that they occur at very low concentrations of curcumin. This does not exclude a local action in the gastrointestinal tract.
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            Studies of curcumin and curcuminoids. XXVII. Cyclodextrin complexation: solubility, chemical and photochemical stability.

            Cyclodextrin complexes of the natural compound curcumin were prepared in order to improve the water solubility and the hydrolytic and photochemical stability of the compound. Complex formation resulted in an increase in water solubility at pH 5 by a factor of at least 10(4). The hydrolytic stability of curcumin under alkaline conditions was strongly improved by complex formation, while the photodecomposition rate was increased compared to a curcumin solution in organic solvents. The cavity size and the charge and bulkiness of the cyclodextrin side-chains influenced the stability constant for complexation and the degradation rate of the curcumin molecule.
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              A study on the fate of curcumin in the rat.

              The uptake, distribution and excretion of curcumin in Sprague-Dawley rats has been studied. When administered orally in a dose of 1 g/kg, curcumin was excreted in the faeces to about 75%, while negligible amounts of curcumin appeared in the urine. Measurements of blood plasma levels and biliary excretion showed that curcumin was poorly absorbed from the gut. No apparent toxic effects were seen after doses of up to 5 g/kg. When intravenously injected or when added to the perfusate of the isolated liver, curcumin was actively transported into bile, against concentration gradients of several hundred times. The major part of the drug was however metabolized. In suspensions of isolated hepatocytes or liver microsomes 90% of the added curcumin was metabolized within 30 min. In view of the poor absorption, rapid metabolism and excretion of curcumin, it is unlikely that substantial concentrations of curcumin occur in the body after ingestion.

                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                5 June 2014
                : 2014
                1Cancer Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                2Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                Author notes
                *Ali Mohammad Alizadeh: aalizadeh@ 123456razi.tums.ac.ir

                Academic Editor: Yoshinori Marunaka

                Copyright © 2014 Negar Ghalandarlaki et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Tehran University of Medical Sciences
                Review Article


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