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      Children’s emotion inferences from masked faces: Implications for social interactions during COVID-19

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      PLoS ONE
      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          To slow the progression of COVID-19, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended wearing face coverings. However, very little is known about how occluding parts of the face might impact the emotion inferences that children make during social interactions. The current study recruited a racially diverse sample of school-aged (7- to 13-years) children from publicly funded after-school programs. Children made inferences from facial configurations that were not covered, wearing sunglasses to occlude the eyes, or wearing surgical masks to occlude the mouth. Children were still able to make accurate inferences about emotions, even when parts of the faces were covered. These data suggest that while there may be some challenges for children incurred by others wearing masks, in combination with other contextual cues, masks are unlikely to dramatically impair children’s social interactions in their everyday lives.

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          Most cited references56

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          Re-epithelialization and immune cell behaviour in an ex vivo human skin model

          A large body of literature is available on wound healing in humans. Nonetheless, a standardized ex vivo wound model without disruption of the dermal compartment has not been put forward with compelling justification. Here, we present a novel wound model based on application of negative pressure and its effects for epidermal regeneration and immune cell behaviour. Importantly, the basement membrane remained intact after blister roof removal and keratinocytes were absent in the wounded area. Upon six days of culture, the wound was covered with one to three-cell thick K14+Ki67+ keratinocyte layers, indicating that proliferation and migration were involved in wound closure. After eight to twelve days, a multi-layered epidermis was formed expressing epidermal differentiation markers (K10, filaggrin, DSG-1, CDSN). Investigations about immune cell-specific manners revealed more T cells in the blister roof epidermis compared to normal epidermis. We identified several cell populations in blister roof epidermis and suction blister fluid that are absent in normal epidermis which correlated with their decrease in the dermis, indicating a dermal efflux upon negative pressure. Together, our model recapitulates the main features of epithelial wound regeneration, and can be applied for testing wound healing therapies and investigating underlying mechanisms.
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              Emotion Knowledge as a Predictor of Social Behavior and Academic Competence in Children at Risk

              Following leads from differential emotions theory and empirical research, we evaluated an index of emotion knowledge as a long-term predictor of positive and negative social behavior and academic competence in a sample of children from economically disadvantaged families (N = 72). The index of emotion knowledge represents the child's ability to recognize and label emotion expressions. We administered control and predictor measures when the children were 5 years old and obtained criterion data at age 9. After controlling for verbal ability and temperament, our index of emotion knowledge predicted aggregate indices of positive and negative social behavior and academic competence. Path analysis showed that emotion knowledge mediated the effect of verbal ability on academic competence. We argue that the ability to detect and label emotion cues facilitates positive social interactions and that a deficit in this ability contributes to behavioral and learning problems. Our findings have implications for primary prevention.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Formal analysisRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                23 December 2020
                2020
                23 December 2020
                : 15
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [001]Department of Psychology and Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
                National Institutes of Health, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-30132
                10.1371/journal.pone.0243708
                7757816
                33362251
                db20cc27-4e89-48cd-9581-20155f5572bf
                © 2020 Ruba, Pollak

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 0, Pages: 12
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000025, National Institute of Mental Health;
                Award ID: T32 MH018931
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000025, National Institute of Mental Health;
                Award ID: R01 MH61285
                Award Recipient : Seth D Pollak
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000071, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development;
                Award ID: U54 HD090256
                Award Recipient : Seth D Pollak
                SDP was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (R01 MH61285) and a core grant to the Waisman Center from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U54 HD090256). ALR was supported by an Emotion Research Training Grant (T32 MH018931) from the National Institute of Mental Health. Funders did not play any role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Face
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Face
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                People and Places
                Population Groupings
                Age Groups
                Children
                People and Places
                Population Groupings
                Families
                Children
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Eyes
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Eyes
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Ocular System
                Eyes
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Ocular System
                Eyes
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Fear
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
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                Fear
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Medical Conditions
                Infectious Diseases
                Viral Diseases
                Covid 19
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Face
                Nose
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Face
                Nose
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Epidemiology
                Pandemics
                Custom metadata
                The raw data and analysis code are available from the Open Science Framework (doi: 10.17605/OSF.IO/7FYX9).
                COVID-19

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