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      Citius, Altius, Fortius vs. Slow Sport: A New Era of Sustainable Sport

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          Abstract

          The objective of the article is to present the slow sport movement as a phenomenon developing in the postmodern era in opposition to the idea of citius, altius, fortius (Eng. faster, higher, stronger). The theoretical part of the article describes the health repercussions of slow movement and its implications for the sports industry and sports tourism. It also points to new challenges in sports management and sports tourism implemented in the slow style. The empirical part of the article aims at determining what influence the achievement of a self-set sports goal has on the degree of satisfaction with participation in a running event among runners. Could runners who did not set themselves any sports goal and ran for pleasure (according to the idea of slow sport) achieve the same degree of satisfaction as runners who set themselves an ambitious sports goal and achieved it (according to the idea of citius, altius, fortius)? The case study is the 6th Poznan Half Marathon, a cyclical, popular running event taking place in Poland. A total of 560 runners ( n = 560) took part in the diagnostic survey conducted using the interview technique. The ANOVA Rang Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn’s test were used in the study. The results show that athletes who did not set a sporting goal (ran for pleasure, company, atmosphere, participation, etc.) experienced the same level of satisfaction as athletes who achieved their intended sporting goal. It turns out, therefore, that sport and physical activity done for pleasure in accordance with the slow sport idea can provide the same level of satisfaction as sport practiced in the spirit of citius, altius, fortius.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Understanding audience segmentation: From elite and mass to omnivore and univore

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            A comprehensive review of health benefits of qigong and tai chi.

            Research examining psychological and physiological benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi is growing rapidly. The many practices described as Qigong or Tai Chi have similar theoretical roots, proposed mechanisms of action, and expected benefits. Research trials and reviews, however, treat them as separate targets of examination. This review examines the evidence for achieving outcomes from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of both. The key words Tai Chi, Taiji, Tai Chi Chuan, and Qigong were entered into electronic search engines for the Cumulative Index for Allied Health and Nursing (CINAHL), psychological literature (PsycINFO), PubMed, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar. STUDY INCLUSION CRITERIA: RCTs reporting on the results of Qigong or Tai Chi interventions and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1993 to 2007. Country, type and duration of activity, number/type of subjects, control conditions, and reported outcomes were recorded for each study. Outcomes related to Qigong and Tai Chi practice were identified and evaluated. Seventy-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The nine outcome category groupings that emerged were bone density (n = 4), cardiopulmonary effects (n = 19), physical function (n = 16), falls and related risk factors (n = 23), quality of life (n = 17), self-efficacy (n = 8), patient-reported outcomes (n = 13), psychological symptoms (n = 27), and immune function (n = 6). Research has demonstrated consistent, significant results for a number of health benefits in RCTs, evidencing progress toward recognizing the similarity and equivalence of Qigong and Tai Chi.
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              Mind-Body Medicine and the Art of Self-Care: Teaching Mindfulness to Counseling Students Through Yoga, Meditation, and Qigong

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                31 October 2018
                November 2018
                : 15
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, Eugeniusz Piasecki University School of Physical Education in Poznań, 61-871 Poznan, Poland
                [2 ]Faculty of Physical Education, Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, 00-968 Warsaw, Poland; katarzyna.ploszaj@ 123456awf.edu.pl (K.P.); wieslawfirek@ 123456gmail.com (W.F.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: malchrowicz@ 123456awf.poznan.pl ; Tel.: +48-535-357-313
                Article
                ijerph-15-02414
                10.3390/ijerph15112414
                6266605
                30384425
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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