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      Mycophenolate Mofetil in Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasm Antibodies-Associated Systemic Vasculitis

      ,

      Nephron Clinical Practice

      S. Karger AG

      Mycophenolate mofetil, Systemic vasculitis, Tolerability, Efficacy

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          Abstract

          Background: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an immune suppressive initially introduced for the prevention of solid organ allograft rejection that is increasingly used in autoimmune conditions, including vasculitis. Methods: This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of MMF in 51 sequential patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies-associated systemic vasculitis (AASV) treated in a single centre between 2001 and 2004. Results: The mean age was 54 years and median disease duration was 36 months. A mean of 3.5 systems were involved and the previous median exposure to cyclophosphamide was 9 g. MMF was administered either as remission maintenance therapy (29/51, 56.9%) or as treatment for active disease (22/51, 43.1%). The mean duration of MMF therapy was 20 months and the mean MMF dose during the first year was 1.6 g/day. 14/29 (48.3%) of those receiving MMF for remission maintenance therapy eventually relapsed with a mean time to relapse of 14 months. Of those receiving MMF for relapsing disease, 3 failed to respond to therapy while the rest achieved remission by 3.9 months. However, 9 of these subsequently flared; mean time to disease flare was also 14 months. MMF was withdrawn in 28 patients (54.9%) because of treatment inefficacy in 21, severe adverse events in 5 and intolerance in 2. Of the 51 treated, 36 (70.6%) experienced at least 1 side effect, namely infections in 24, gastrointestinal side effects in 12 and psychological events in 6 patients. Conclusions: We have observed varying efficacy of MMF in AASV, with over 50% of patients with relapsing disease achieving remission and marked falls in concomitant steroid doses. However, longer follow-up indicates a subsequent relapse rate of over 50% that may be associated with low MMF dosing.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil in patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis. Hong Kong-Guangzhou Nephrology Study Group.

          The combination of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone is effective for the treatment of severe lupus nephritis but has serious adverse effects. Whether mycophenolate mofetil can be substituted for cyclophosphamide is not known. In 42 patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis we compared the efficacy and side effects of a regimen of prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil given for 12 months with those of a regimen of prednisolone and cyclophosphamide given for 6 months, followed by prednisolone and azathioprine for 6 months. Complete remission was defined as a value for urinary protein excretion that was less than 0.3 g per 24 hours, with normal urinary sediment, a normal serum albumin concentration, and values for serum creatinine and creatinine clearance that were no more than 15 percent above the base-line values. Partial remission was defined as a value for urinary protein excretion that was between 0.3 and 2.9 g per 24 hours, with a serum albumin concentration of at least 30 g per liter. Eighty-one percent of the 21 patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone (group 1) had a complete remission, and 14 percent had a partial remission, as compared with 76 percent and 14 percent, respectively, of the 21 patients treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone followed by azathioprine and prednisolone (group 2). The improvements in the degree of proteinuria and the serum albumin and creatinine concentrations were similar in the two groups. One patient in each group discontinued treatment because of side effects. Infections were noted in 19 percent of the patients in group 1 and in 33 percent of those in group 2 (P = 0.29). Other adverse effects occurred only in group 2; they included amenorrhea (in 23 percent of the patients), hair loss (19 percent), leukopenia (10 percent), and death (10 percent). The rates of relapse were 15 percent and 11 percent, respectively. For the treatment of diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis, the combination of mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone is as effective as a regimen of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone followed by azathioprine and prednisolone but is less toxic.
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            Etanercept plus standard therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis.

             Yuan-I Min (2005)
            The majority of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis have disease flares after conventional medications are tapered. There is no consistently safe, effective treatment for the maintenance of remission. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial at eight centers to evaluate etanercept for the maintenance of remission in 180 patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. The primary outcome was sustained remission, defined as a Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener's Granulomatosis of 0 for at least six months (scores can range from 0 to 67, with higher scores indicating more active disease). In addition to etanercept or placebo, patients received standard therapy (glucocorticoids plus cyclophosphamide or methotrexate). After remission, standard medications were tapered according to the protocol. The mean follow-up for the overall cohort was 27 months. Of the 174 patients who could be evaluated, 126 (72.4 percent) had a sustained remission, but only 86 (49.4 percent) remained in remission for the remainder of the trial. There were no significant differences between the etanercept and control groups in the rates of sustained remission (69.7 percent vs. 75.3 percent, P=0.39), sustained periods of low-level disease activity (86.5 percent vs. 90.6 percent, P=0.32), or the time required to achieve those measures. Disease flares were common in both groups, with 118 flares in the etanercept group (23 severe and 95 limited) and 134 in the control group (25 severe and 109 limited). There was no significant difference between the etanercept and control groups in the relative risk of disease flares per 100 person-years of follow-up (0.89, P=0.54). During the study, 56.2 percent of patients in the etanercept group and 57.1 percent of those in the control group had at least one severe or life-threatening adverse event or died (P=0.90). Solid cancers developed in six patients in the etanercept group, as compared with none in the control group (P=0.01). Etanercept is not effective for the maintenance of remission in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Durable remissions were achieved in only a minority of the patients, and there was a high rate of treatment-related complications. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Outcome of ANCA-associated renal vasculitis: a 5-year retrospective study.

              Renal involvement is frequently present in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis and is an important cause of end-stage renal failure (ESRF). This retrospective, multicenter, sequential cohort study reports presenting features and outcome of 246 new patients diagnosed in London, UK, between 1995 and 2000. Diagnostic subgroups were microscopic polyangiitis, 120 patients (49%); Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), 82 patients (33%); renal-limited vasculitis, 33 patients (13.5%); and Churg-Strauss angiitis, 11 patients (4.5%). Median age was 66 years, 57% were men, and median creatinine level at presentation was 3.87 mg/dL (342 micromol/L). ANCA was present in 92%. Cumulative patient survival at 1 and 5 years was 82% and 76%, respectively. Mortality was associated with age older than 60 years (P < 0.001), development of ESRF (P < 0.001), initial creatinine level greater than 2.26 mg/dL (200 micromol/L; P = 0.01), and sepsis (P < 0.048). ESRF occurred in 68 patients (28%), of whom 47% died. Fifty-six patients who presented with a creatinine level greater than 5.65 mg/dL (500 micromol/L) survived, and 31 patients (55%) achieved dialysis independence. Relapse occurred in 34% after a median of 13 months and was more common in patients with WG (P = 0.048) and proteinase 3-ANCA (P = 0.034). Leukopenia occurred in 41% and was associated with sepsis (P < 0.001). Mortality and morbidity of ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis are improving compared with previous series, but remain high. Renal vasculitis often affects older patients, who have a particularly poor outcome. Early diagnosis improves outcome. Leukopenia, caused by immunosuppressive therapy, should be avoided because of the close association with sepsis and death.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2006
                February 2006
                15 November 2005
                : 102
                : 3-4
                : c100-c107
                Affiliations
                Vasculitis and Lupus Clinic, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
                Article
                89667 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;102:c100–c107
                10.1159/000089667
                16286784
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 24, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/89667
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Systemic vasculitis, Efficacy, Tolerability, Mycophenolate mofetil

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