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      Ultraviolet-B radiation in relation to agriculture in the context of climate change: a review

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          Abstract

          Over the past few decades, the amount of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) reaching the earth’s surface has been altered due to climate change and stratospheric ozone dynamics. This narrow but highly biologically active spectrum of light (280–320 nm) can affect plant growth and development. Depletion of ozone and climate change are interlinked in a very complicated manner, i.e., significantly contributing to each other. The interaction of climate change, ozone depletion, and changes in UV-B radiation negatively affects the growth, development, and yield of plants. Furthermore, this interaction will become more complex in the coming years. The ozone layer reduction is paving a path for UV-B radiation to impact the surface of the earth and interfere with the plant's normal life by negatively affecting the plant's morphology and physiology. The nature and degree of the future response of the agricultural ecosystem to the decreasing or increasing UV-B radiation in the background of climate change and ozone dynamics are still unclear. In this regard, this review aims to elucidate the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface due to the depletion of the ozone layer on plants’ physiology and the performance of major cereals.

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          Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people.

          Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here.
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            COVID-19 outbreak: Migration, effects on society, global environment and prevention

            The COVID-19 pandemic is considered as the most crucial global health calamity of the century and the greatest challenge that the humankind faced since the 2nd World War. In December 2019, a new infectious respiratory disease emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province, China and was named by the World Health Organization as COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). A new class of corona virus, known as SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has been found to be responsible for occurrence of this disease. As far as the history of human civilization is concerned there are instances of severe outbreaks of diseases caused by a number of viruses. According to the report of the World Health Organization (WHO as of April 18 2020), the current outbreak of COVID-19, has affected over 2164111 people and killed more than 146,198 people in more than 200 countries throughout the world. Till now there is no report of any clinically approved antiviral drugs or vaccines that are effective against COVID-19. It has rapidly spread around the world, posing enormous health, economic, environmental and social challenges to the entire human population. The coronavirus outbreak is severely disrupting the global economy. Almost all the nations are struggling to slow down the transmission of the disease by testing & treating patients, quarantining suspected persons through contact tracing, restricting large gatherings, maintaining complete or partial lock down etc. This paper describes the impact of COVID-19 on society and global environment, and the possible ways in which the disease can be controlled has also been discussed therein.
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              Effect of restricted emissions during COVID-19 on air quality in India

              The effectiveness and cost are always top factors for policy-makers to decide control measures and most measures had no pre-test before implementation. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, human activities are largely restricted in many regions in India since mid-March of 2020, and it is a progressing experiment to testify effectiveness of restricted emissions. In this study, concentrations of six criteria pollutants, PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, ozone and SO2 during March 16th to April 14th from 2017 to 2020 in 22 cities covering different regions of India were analysed. Overall, around 43, 31, 10, and 18% decreases in PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NO2 in India were observed during lockdown period compared to previous years. While, there were 17% increase in O3 and negligible changes in SO2. The air quality index (AQI) reduced by 44, 33, 29, 15 and 32% in north, south, east, central and western India, respectively. Correlation between cities especially in northern and eastern regions improved in 2020 compared to previous years, indicating more significant regional transport than previous years. The mean excessive risks of PM reduced by ~52% nationwide due to restricted activities in lockdown period. To eliminate the effects of possible favourable meteorology, the WRF-AERMOD model system was also applied in Delhi-NCR with actual meteorology during the lockdown period and an un-favourable event in early November of 2019 and results show that predicted PM2.5 could increase by only 33% in unfavourable meteorology. This study gives confidence to the regulatory bodies that even during unfavourable meteorology, a significant improvement in air quality could be expected if strict execution of air quality control plans is implemented.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                hebaibrahim79@gmail.com
                Journal
                Cereal Res Commun
                Cereal Res Commun
                Cereal Research Communications
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                0133-3720
                1788-9170
                13 April 2023
                : 1-24
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.98622.37, ISNI 0000 0001 2271 3229, Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, , Çukurova University, ; 01330 Adana, Turkey
                [2 ]GRID grid.513091.f, ISNI 0000 0004 8398 8295, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Department of Plant Protection, , Sivas University of Science and Technology, ; 58140 Sivas, Turkey
                [3 ]GRID grid.98622.37, ISNI 0000 0001 2271 3229, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, , Çukurova University, ; 01330 Adana, Turkey
                [4 ]GRID grid.411049.9, ISNI 0000 0004 0574 2310, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, , Ondokuz Mayis University, ; Samsun, Turkey
                [5 ]GRID grid.258803.4, ISNI 0000 0001 0661 1556, Department of Horticultural Science, , Kyungpook National University, ; Daegu, 41566 South Korea
                [6 ]GRID grid.7269.a, ISNI 0000 0004 0621 1570, Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, , Ain Shams University, ; Cairo, 11341 Egypt
                Author notes

                Communicated by Ágnes Gallé.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6892-3376
                Article
                375
                10.1007/s42976-023-00375-5
                10099031
                db3f816b-038d-4e23-959d-b82c986f3ca2
                © Akadémiai Kiadó Zrt. 2023, Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                History
                : 15 December 2022
                : 3 April 2023
                Categories
                Review

                ultraviolet-b radiations,cereals,climate change,stratospheric ozone,greenhouse gases

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