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      Adeno-Associated Virus Gene Transfer into Renal Cells: Potential for in vivo Gene Delivery

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          The human parvovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV), type 2, has a number of features that make it an attractive choice as a vector for gene delivery to the kidney. AAV vectors permit long-term gene expression in vivo by integration into the host genome, have potential for site-specific integration on chromosome 19, do not express viral genes or generate a cellular immune response, and demonstrate enhancement of gene expression by chemotherapeutic agents that are approved for use in vivo. These properties confer advantages to AAV over other viral and nonviral methods for gene transfer. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory suggest that AAV is able to transfer genes to both renal cells in culture and the kidney in vivo. Thus, AAV has the potential to be an important gene transfer vector for the kidney in vivo.

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          Long-term gene expression and phenotypic correction using adeno-associated virus vectors in the mammalian brain.

          Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are non-pathogenic, integrating DNA vectors in which all viral genes are removed and helper virus is completely eliminated. To evaluate this system in the post-mitotic cells of the brain, we found that an AAV vector containing the lacZ gene (AAVlac) resulted in expression of beta-galactosidase up to three months post-injection in vivo. A second vector expressing human tyrosine hydroxylase (AAVth) was injected into the denervated striatum of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity was detectable in striatal neurons and glia for up to four months and we also found significant behavioural recovery in lesioned rats treated with AAVth versus AAVlac controls. Safe and stable TH gene transfer into the denervated striatum may have potential for the genetic therapy of Parkinson's disease.
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            Recombinant adeno-associated virus for muscle directed gene therapy.

            Although gene transfer with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has typically been low, transduction can be enhanced in the presence of adenovirus gene products through the formation of double stranded, non-integrated AAV genomes. We describe the unexpected finding of high level and stable transgene expression in mice following intramuscular injection of purified recombinant AAV (rAAV). The rAAV genome is efficiently incorporated into nuclei of differentiated muscle fibers where it persists as head-to-tail concatamers. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of muscle tissue suggests single integration sites. Neutralizing antibody against AAV capsid proteins does not prevent readministration of vector. Remarkably, no humoral or cellular immune responses are elicited to the neoantigenic transgene product E. coli beta-galactosidase. The favorable biology of rAAV in muscle-directed gene therapy described in this study expands the potential of this vector for the treatment of inherited and acquired diseases.

              Author and article information

              Nephron Exp Nephrol
              Cardiorenal Medicine
              S. Karger AG
              June 1998
              22 May 1998
              : 6
              : 3
              : 189-194
              Divisions of Infectious Disease and Nephrology, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, N.Y., USA
              20522 Exp Nephrol 1998;6:189–194
              © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 24, Pages: 6
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