The human parvovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV), type 2, has a number of features that make it an attractive choice as a vector for gene delivery to the kidney. AAV vectors permit long-term gene expression in vivo by integration into the host genome, have potential for site-specific integration on chromosome 19, do not express viral genes or generate a cellular immune response, and demonstrate enhancement of gene expression by chemotherapeutic agents that are approved for use in vivo. These properties confer advantages to AAV over other viral and nonviral methods for gene transfer. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory suggest that AAV is able to transfer genes to both renal cells in culture and the kidney in vivo. Thus, AAV has the potential to be an important gene transfer vector for the kidney in vivo.