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      Erythropoietin, a multifaceted protein with innate and adaptive immune modulatory activity

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          Abstract

          Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein mainly produced by the adult kidney in response to hypoxia and is the crucial regulator of red blood cell production. EPO receptors (EPORs), however, are not confined to erythroid cells, but are expressed by many organs including the heart, brain, retina, pancreas, and kidney, where they mediate EPO-induced, erythropoiesis-independent, tissue-protective effects. Some of these tissues do also produce and locally release small amounts of EPO in response to organ injury as a mechanism of self-repair.

          Growing evidence shows that EPO possesses also important immune modulating effects. Monocytes can produce EPO and autocrine EPO/EPOR signaling in these cells is crucial in maintaining immunological self-tolerance. New data in mice and humans also indicate that EPO has a direct inhibitory effect on effector/memory T cells, while it promotes formation of regulatory T cells.

          This review examines the non-erythropoietic effects of EPO, with a special emphasis on its modulating activity on innate immune cells and T cells and on how it affects transplant outcomes.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          100968638
          29770
          Am J Transplant
          Am. J. Transplant.
          American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
          1600-6135
          1600-6143
          30 March 2019
          25 April 2019
          September 2019
          01 September 2020
          : 19
          : 9
          : 2407-2414
          Affiliations
          [1 ]Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
          [2 ]Department of Experimental, Diagnostic, Specialty Medicine, Nephrology, Dialysis, and Renal Transplant Unit, S. Orsola University Hospital, Bologna, Italy
          Author notes
          Correspondence Paolo Cravedi, paolo.cravedi@ 123456mssm.edu
          Article
          PMC6711804 PMC6711804 6711804 nihpa1019655
          10.1111/ajt.15369
          6711804
          30903735
          Categories
          Article

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