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      COVID-19 and conjunctivitis: a meta-analysis

      research-article
       
      Therapeutic Advances in Ophthalmology
      SAGE Publications
      COVID-19, meta-analysis, SARS-CoV-2, viral conjunctivitis

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          Abstract

          COVID-19 is a disease first identified in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019, causes by a SARS-COV-2 virus infection. By 27 October 2020, 43,921,473 confirmed cases were reported worldwide, with 1,166,389 COVID-19 deaths. Conjunctivitis has been reported in adults and pediatric patients with COVID-19.

          Objective:

          The aim of this meta-analysis is to estimate the odd Ratio (ORs) of conjunctivitis in patients with COVID-19.

          Methods:

          A systematic review and meta-analysis have been performed using the PubMed and Google Scholar literature search. The ORs of conjunctivitis in adults and pediatric patients is the outcome of this meta-analysis.

          Results:

          There have been 1041 articles published since the outbreak in December 2019, according to the latest literature. For the meta-analysis, 20 studies with a total of 3383 participants were included. The odds ratio (ORs) of conjunctivitis was 0.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00–0.02). No bias has been reported.

          Conclusion:

          Conjunctivitis is the most common ocular manifestations reported in adults. This comprehensive meta-analysis quantifies the existing evidence linking conjunctivitis with COVID-19 and highlights the high percentage of heterogeneity that is shown in the current studies. Finally, it offers a single review article which includes all the current articles available for COVID-19 and conjunctivitis in adults and children.

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          Most cited references41

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          Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

          Abstract Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.)
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            The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials

            Flaws in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of randomised trials can cause the effect of an intervention to be underestimated or overestimated. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias aims to make the process clearer and more accurate
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              Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement

              Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015). PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Adv Ophthalmol
                Ther Adv Ophthalmol
                OED
                spoed
                Therapeutic Advances in Ophthalmology
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                2515-8414
                25 March 2021
                Jan-Dec 2021
                : 13
                : 25158414211003368
                Affiliations
                [1-25158414211003368]School of Health and Social Care, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Kiviharjuntie 8, 90220 Oulu Teuvo, Pakkalan Katu 19, 90100 Oulu, 90220, Finland
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5253-1175
                Article
                10.1177_25158414211003368
                10.1177/25158414211003368
                7994922
                34192224
                db4e890c-b673-4c65-b2f5-1aa79b8ffd8f
                © The Author(s), 2021

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                History
                : 31 January 2021
                : 23 February 2021
                Categories
                Meta-Analysis
                Custom metadata
                January-December 2021
                ts1

                covid-19,meta-analysis,sars-cov-2,viral conjunctivitis
                covid-19, meta-analysis, sars-cov-2, viral conjunctivitis

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