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      Differences in the pressures of canal anal and rectal sensitivity in patients with fecal incontinence, chronic constipation and healthy subjects Translated title: Diferencias en las presiones del canal anal y la sensibilidad rectal en pacientes con incontinencia anal, estreñimiento crónico y sujetos sanos

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          Abstract

          Introduction: There exist a great variability in the manometric findings between patients with anal incontinence (AI) and healthy subjects. The correlation between the pressures of the anal canal and the AI is not exact by the wide rank of normal values. Objectives: Prospective study to evaluate differences in the pressures of the anal canal and in rectal sensitivity in patients with AI, chronic constipation (CC) and healthy subjects. Material and methods: Ninety four patients with AI, 36 patients with CC and 15 healthy subjects were included. The following data were obtained: age, sex, resting pressure, anal canal length (ACL), squeeze maximum pressure (SMP), squeeze pressure duration (SPD), first sensation, urge and maximum tolerated volume (MTV). Statistical study: test of Kruskal-Wallis, test of Mann-Whitney, and multinomial logistic regression test. Results: There were significant differences in the resting pressure (p < 0.001), the ACL (p < 0.001) and the SMP (p < 0.01) in the group of AI with respect to the other two groups. The volume for the first sensation was significantly lower in the healthy subjects than that in the other two groups (p < 0.05). The urge volume and the MVT were smaller in the group with AI with respect to the other groups (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis the age, the resting pressure and the volume for the first sensation and urge increase the relative risk for AI. Conclusions: The greater age, the decrease in anal canal resting pressure and the alteration of rectal sensation increase the risk for AI.

          Translated abstract

          Introducción: Existe gran variabilidad en los hallazgos manométricos entre pacientes con incontinencia anal (IA) y sujetos sanos. La correlación entre las presiones del canal anal y la IA no es exacta por el amplio rango de valores normales. Objetivos: Estudio prospectivo para evaluar diferencias en las presiones del canal anal y en la sensibilidad rectal en pacientes con IA, estreñimiento crónico (EC) y sujetos sanos. Material y métodos: Noventa y cuatro pacientes con IA, 36 pacientes con EC y 15 sujetos sanos. Se obtuvieron: edad, sexo, presión de reposo, longitud del canal anal (LCA), presión de máxima contracción voluntaria (PMCV), duración de la contracción voluntaria, primera sensación, sensación de urgencia y máximo volumen tolerado (MVT). Estudio estadístico: test de Kruskal-Wallis, test de Mann-Whitney, regresión logística multinomial. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la edad (p < 0,001), la presión de reposo (p < 0,001), la LCA (p < 0,001) y la PMCV (p < 0,01) en el grupo de IA con respecto a los otros dos grupos. El volumen para la primera sensación fue significativamente más bajo en los sujetos sanos que en los otros dos grupos (p < 0,05). El volumen de urgencia y el MVT fueron menores en el grupo con IA con respecto a los otros dos grupos (p < 0,001). En el análisis multivariante la edad, la presión de reposo y el volumen de la primera sensación y de la urgencia aumentan el riesgo relativo de IA. Conclusiones: La mayor edad, la disminución presión basal del canal anal y la alteración del umbral sensorial rectal aumentan el riesgo de IA.

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          Most cited references 40

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          The functional gastrointestinal disorders and the Rome II process.

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            The prevalence of fecal incontinence in community-dwelling adults: a systematic review of the literature.

            Reported prevalence estimates for fecal incontinence among community-dwelling adults vary widely. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the studied prevalence of fecal incontinence in the community and explore the heterogeneity of study designs and sources of bias that may explain variability in estimates. A predetermined search strategy was used to locate all studies published that reported the prevalence of fecal incontinence in a community-based sample of adults. Data were extracted onto a proforma for sampling frame and method, sample size, response rate, definition of fecal incontinence used, data-collection method, and prevalence rates. Included studies were critically appraised for possible sources of selection bias, information bias, and imprecision. A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. These could be grouped into definitions of incontinence that included or excluded incontinence of flatus. The estimated prevalence of anal incontinence (including flatus incontinence) varied from 2 to 24 percent, and the estimated prevalence of fecal incontinence (excluding flatus incontinence) varied from 0.4 to 18 percent. Only three studies were found to have a study design that minimized significant sources of bias, and only one of these used a validated instrument for data collection. The prevalence estimate of fecal incontinence from these studies was 11 to 15 percent. No pooling of estimates was undertaken because there was wide variation in study design. A consensus definition of fecal incontinence is needed that accounts for alterations in quality of life. Further cross-sectional studies are required that minimize bias in their design and use validated self-administered questionnaires.
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              Manometric tests of anorectal function in healthy adults.

              Although tests of anorectal function are useful in the assessment of defecation disorders, there is inadequate and inconsistent information regarding normative data. Also, there are discrepancies in manometric techniques and data interpretation. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of anorectal function in healthy adults. We used a 6-mm diameter probe containing six radially arrayed microtransducers, and a 4-cm-long latex balloon for performing anorectal manometry in 45 healthy subjects who were controlled for gender and age. Sequentially, subjects were asked to squeeze, bear down, or blow up a party balloon. Subsequently, rectal sensation, rectal compliance, and rectoanal reflexes were assessed simultaneously by performing intermittent phasic balloon distentions. Additionally, balloon defecation, pudendal nerve latency, and saline continence tests were performed. In men, the anal sphincter was longer (p < 0.05) and squeeze sphincter pressure and squeeze duration were higher (p < 0.01), but resting sphincter pressure was similar to that in women. When bearing down, although not significant, the defecation index was higher in men. Distinct thresholds for rectal sensation were identified but there was no gender difference. Likewise, rectal compliance and balloon expulsion time were similar. However, during saline infusion, the onset of first leak and total volume retained were higher (p < 0.001) and pudendal nerve latency was shorter (p < 0.05) in men. Overall, parity or age did not influence anorectal function. This study represents the most comprehensive age- and gender-controlled assessment of anorectal function using solid state technology. Gender influences some parameters of anorectal function. Our results could serve as a valuable resource of normative data.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                diges
                Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
                Rev. esp. enferm. dig.
                Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva (Madrid, Madrid, Spain )
                1130-0108
                December 2010
                : 102
                : 12
                : 683-690
                Affiliations
                Fuenlabrada orgnameHospital de Fuenlabrada Madrid
                orgnameHospital Universitario 12 de Octubre
                orgnameHospital Universitario Clínico San Carlos
                Article
                S1130-01082010001200002
                10.4321/s1130-01082010001200002

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 8
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