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      Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review.

      1 ,
      Ecotoxicology and environmental safety
      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Plants exposed to salt stress undergo changes in their environment. The ability of plants to tolerate salt is determined by multiple biochemical pathways that facilitate retention and/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functions, and maintain ion homeostasis. Essential pathways include those that lead to synthesis of osmotically active metabolites, specific proteins, and certain free radical scavenging enzymes that control ion and water flux and support scavenging of oxygen radicals or chaperones. The ability of plants to detoxify radicals under conditions of salt stress is probably the most critical requirement. Many salt-tolerant species accumulate methylated metabolites, which play crucial dual roles as osmoprotectants and as radical scavengers. Their synthesis is correlated with stress-induced enhancement of photorespiration. In this paper, plant responses to salinity stress are reviewed with emphasis on physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance. This review may help in interdisciplinary studies to assess the ecological significance of salt stress.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Ecotoxicol Environ Saf
          Ecotoxicology and environmental safety
          Elsevier BV
          0147-6513
          0147-6513
          Mar 2005
          : 60
          : 3
          Affiliations
          [1 ] National Institute for Plant Biodiversity Conservation and Research, Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar 751015, Orissa, India.
          Article
          S0147-6513(04)00092-2
          10.1016/j.ecoenv.2004.06.010
          15590011
          db846f62-a8d2-4571-bb79-6edaa1635eb0
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