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      Antiphospholipid syndrome

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          Antiphospholipid syndrome: clinical and immunologic manifestations and patterns of disease expression in a cohort of 1,000 patients.

          To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression. The clinical and serologic features of APS (Sapporo preliminary criteria) in 1,000 patients from 13 European countries were analyzed using a computerized database. The cohort consisted of 820 female patients (82.0%) and 180 male patients (18.0%) with a mean +/- SD age of 42 +/- 14 years at study entry. "Primary" APS was present in 53.1% of the patients; APS was associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 36.2%, with lupus-like syndrome in 5.0%, and with other diseases in 5.9%. A variety of thrombotic manifestations affecting the majority of organs were recorded. A catastrophic APS occurred in 0.8% of the patients. Patients with APS associated with SLE had more episodes of arthritis and livedo reticularis, and more frequently exhibited thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Female patients had a higher frequency of arthritis, livedo reticularis, and migraine. Male patients had a higher frequency of myocardial infarction, epilepsy, and arterial thrombosis in the lower legs and feet. In 28 patients (2.8%), disease onset occurred before age 15; these patients had more episodes of chorea and jugular vein thrombosis than the remaining patients. In 127 patients (12.7%), disease onset occurred after age 50; most of these patients were men. These patients had a higher frequency of stroke and angina pectoris, but a lower frequency of livedo reticularis, than the remaining patients. APS may affect any organ of the body and display a broad spectrum of manifestations. An association with SLE, the patient's sex, and the patient's age at disease onset can modify the disease expression and define specific subsets of APS.
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            Rheological and Physiological Consequences of Conversion of the Maternal Spiral Arteries for Uteroplacental Blood Flow during Human Pregnancy

            Physiological conversion of the maternal spiral arteries is key to a successful human pregnancy. It involves loss of smooth muscle and the elastic lamina from the vessel wall as far as the inner third of the myometrium, and is associated with a 5–10-fold dilation at the vessel mouth. Failure of conversion accompanies common complications of pregnancy, such as early-onset preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Here, we model the effects of terminal dilation on inflow of blood into the placental intervillous space at term, using dimensions in the literature derived from three-dimensional reconstructions. We observe that dilation slows the rate of flow from 2 to 3 m/s in the non-dilated part of an artery of 0.4–0.5 mm diameter to approximately 10 cm/s at the 2.5 mm diameter mouth, depending on the exact radius and viscosity. This rate predicts a transit time through the intervillous space of approximately 25 s, which matches observed times closely. The model shows that in the absence of conversion blood will enter the intervillous space as a turbulent jet at rates of 1–2 m/s. We speculate that the high momentum will damage villous architecture, rupturing anchoring villi and creating echogenic cystic lesions as evidenced by ultrasound. The retention of smooth muscle will also increase the risk of spontaneous vasoconstriction and ischaemia–reperfusion injury, generating oxidative stress. Dilation has a surprisingly modest impact on total blood flow, and so we suggest the placental pathology associated with deficient conversion is dominated by rheological consequences rather than chronic hypoxia.
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              Antiphospholipid syndrome.

              The antiphospholipid syndrome causes venous, arterial, and small-vessel thrombosis; pregnancy loss; and preterm delivery for patients with severe pre-eclampsia or placental insufficiency. Other clinical manifestations are cardiac valvular disease, renal thrombotic microangiopathy, thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia, and cognitive impairment. Antiphospholipid antibodies promote activation of endothelial cells, monocytes, and platelets; and overproduction of tissue factor and thromboxane A2. Complement activation might have a central pathogenetic role. Of the different antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant is the strongest predictor of features related to antiphospholipid syndrome. Therapy of thrombosis is based on long-term oral anticoagulation and patients with arterial events should be treated aggressively. Primary thromboprophylaxis is recommended in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and probably in purely obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome. Obstetric care is based on combined medical-obstetric high-risk management and treatment with aspirin and heparin. Hydroxychloroquine is a potential additional treatment for this syndrome. Possible future therapies for non-pregnant patients with antiphospholipid syndrome are statins, rituximab, and new anticoagulant drugs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Disease Primers
                Nat. Rev. Dis. Primers
                Springer Nature
                2056-676X
                January 11 2018
                January 11 2018
                : 4
                :
                : 17103
                Article
                10.1038/nrdp.2017.103
                © 2018
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