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      Study of Effect of Optimization of Dialysis and Protein Intake on Neuromuscular Function in Patients under Maintenance Hemodialysis Treatment

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          This study was carried out on 22 patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Among them, 20 patients were males and 2 were females, their age ranged from 12 to 50 years. Initially, the patients were assessed clinically and by laboratory investigations and their dialysis was assessed by studying their urea kinetic modeling following the nomographic approach for calculating their Kt/V values. Their nutrition was assessed by measuring skin folds, midarm circumference, laboratory parameters and by calculating the normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR). Also their neuromuscular functions were assessed by clinical examination and neurophysiologic study. Dialysis dose was readjusted to achieve a target Kt/V value of 1.3 for patients on 3 times weekly dialysis and 1.6 for patients on twice weekly dialysis. Also, their nutrition was reviewed to achieve nPCR 1.2 g/kg/day and caloric intake 30–40 kcal/kg/day through diet manipulation and support. The patients were assessed finally after 3 months on targeted dialysis and nutrition by thorough clinical, laboratory and neuromuscular assessment.Analysis of neurophysiologic data showed significant improvement in electromyography. Furthermore, fatigue test showed significant (p = 0.002) decreases in muscle fatigue after optimization of dialysis dose and patients’ nutrition.From this study, we may conclude that in dialysis patients, even when asymptomatic and clinically stable, neurologic deficits do exist and using area kinetic modeling to improve dialysis and patients’ nutrition is valuable in improving their neuromuscular functions.

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          The urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration as predictors of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

          Among patients with end-stage renal disease who are treated with hemodialysis, solute clearance during dialysis and nutritional adequacy are determinants of mortality. We determined the effects of reductions in blood urea nitrogen concentrations during dialysis and changes in serum albumin concentrations, as an indicator of nutritional status, on mortality in a large group of patients treated with hemodialysis. We analyzed retrospectively the demographic characteristics, mortality rate, duration of hemodialysis, serum albumin concentration, and urea reduction ratio (defined as the percent reduction in blood urea nitrogen concentration during a single dialysis treatment) in 13,473 patients treated from October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. The risk of death was determined as a function of the urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration. As compared with patients with urea reduction ratios of 65 to 69 percent, patients with values below 60 percent had a higher risk of death during follow-up (odds ratio, 1.28 for urea reduction ratios of 55 to 59 percent and 1.39 for ratios below 55 percent). Fifty-five percent of the patients had urea reduction ratios below 60 percent. The duration of dialysis was not predictive of mortality. The serum albumin concentration was a more powerful (21 times greater) predictor of death than the urea reduction ratio, and 60 percent of the patients had serum albumin concentrations predictive of an increased risk of death (values below 4.0 g per deciliter). The odds ratio for death was 1.48 for serum albumin concentrations of 3.5 to 3.9 g per deciliter and 3.13 for concentrations of 3.0 to 3.4 g per deciliter. Diabetic patients had lower serum albumin concentrations and urea reduction ratios than nondiabetic patients. Low urea reduction ratios during dialysis are associated with increased odds ratios for death. These risks are worsened by inadequate nutrition.

            Author and article information

            Am J Nephrol
            American Journal of Nephrology
            S. Karger AG
            October 1998
            10 September 1998
            : 18
            : 5
            : 399-403
            a Urology and Nephrology Center and b Neurology Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
            13383 Am J Nephrol 1998;18:399–403
            © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Page count
            Tables: 3, References: 17, Pages: 5
            Self URI (application/pdf):
            Clinical Study

            Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

            Neuromuscular, urea kinetics, Nutrition, adequacy, Dialysis


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