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      Sensitization of human renal cell carcinoma cells to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) by anti-interleukin 6 monoclonal antibody or anti-interleukin 6 receptor monoclonal antibody.

      Cancer research

      Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Antibodies, Monoclonal, pharmacology, Carcinoma, Renal Cell, Cell Line, Cell Survival, drug effects, immunology, Cisplatin, metabolism, Drug Synergism, Flow Cytometry, Humans, Interleukin-6, analysis, biosynthesis, Kidney Neoplasms, RNA, Neoplasm, Receptors, Interleukin, Receptors, Interleukin-6, Tumor Cells, Cultured

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          Abstract

          Cytotoxic chemotherapy has shown little antitumor activity against renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It has been demonstrated that RCC cells secrete interleukin 6 (IL-6) and express IL-6 receptors (IL-6Rs). IL-6 inhibits apoptosis and enhances manganese superoxide dismutase expression. Several anticancer chemotherapeutic agents exert their cytotoxic activity in part through the induction of apoptosis and the production of free radicals. Thus, the resistance of RCC cells to the anticancer agents might correlate with IL-6 expression. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of anti-IL-6 mAb and anti-IL-6R mAb on the sensitivity of human RCC cells to anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment of Caki-1 cells with anti-IL-6 mAb or anti-IL-6R mAb in combination with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) or mitomycin C overcame their resistance to CDDP or mitomycin C. However, treatment of Caki-1 cells with anti-IL-6 mAb or anti-IL-6R mAb in combination with Adriamycin, vinblastine or 5-fluorouracil did not overcome their resistance to these anticancer agents. Treatment of CDDP-resistant Caki-1 cells (Caki-1/DDP), two other RCC cell lines (ACHN and A704), and three freshly derived RCC cells with CDDP in combination with anti-IL-6 mAb or anti-IL-6R mAb reversed the resistance to CDDP in all these tumors. We then studied the effectiveness of other platinum derivatives. Treatment of Caki-1 cells with anti-IL-6 mAb or anti-IL-6R mAb enhanced their sensitivity to carboplatin, but not to trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). Several experiments investigated the mechanism of the antibody-mediated sensitization of RCC cells to CDDP. Incubation of Caki-1 cells with anti-IL-6 mAb or anti-IL-6R mAb did not change the intracellular accumulation of CDDP. The expressions of the multidrug resistant phenotype (gp170) and c-myc oncogene were not affected by the antibody-mediated sensitization. Treatment of Caki-1 cells with the anti-IL-6 mAb or anti-IL-6R mAb down-regulated the expression of glutathione S-transferase pi mRNA. This study demonstrates that treatment of RCC cells with CDDP in combination with anti-IL-6 mAb or anti-IL-6R mAb can overcome their CDDP-resistance and that the down-regulation of glutathione S-transferase pi expression by anti-IL-6 mAb or anti-IL-6R mAb might play a role in the enhanced cytotoxicity obtained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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