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      Endocan and the respiratory system: a review

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          Abstract

          Endocan, formerly called endothelial cell-specific molecule 1, is an endothelial cell-associated proteoglycan that is preferentially expressed by renal and pulmonary endothelium. It is upregulated by proangiogenic molecules as well as by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and since it reflects endothelial activation and dysfunction, it is regarded as a novel tissue and blood-based relevant biomarker. As such, it is increasingly being researched and evaluated in a wide spectrum of healthy and disease pathophysiological processes. Here, we review the present scientific knowledge on endocan, with emphasis on the evidence that underlines its possible clinical value as a prognostic marker in several malignant, inflammatory and obstructive disorders of the respiratory system.

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          Most cited references 81

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          Heparan sulphate proteoglycans fine-tune mammalian physiology.

          Heparan sulphate proteoglycans reside on the plasma membrane of all animal cells studied so far and are a major component of extracellular matrices. Studies of model organisms and human diseases have demonstrated their importance in development and normal physiology. A recurrent theme is the electrostatic interaction of the heparan sulphate chains with protein ligands, which affects metabolism, transport, information transfer, support and regulation in all organ systems. The importance of these interactions is exemplified by phenotypic studies of mice and humans bearing mutations in the core proteins or the biosynthetic enzymes responsible for assembling the heparan sulphate chains.
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            Matrix proteoglycans: from molecular design to cellular function.

             Renato Iozzo (1997)
            The proteoglycan superfamily now contains more than 30 full-time molecules that fulfill a variety of biological functions. Proteoglycans act as tissue organizers, influence cell growth and the maturation of specialized tissues, play a role as biological filters and modulate growth-factor activities, regulate collagen fibrillogenesis and skin tensile strength, affect tumor cell growth and invasion, and influence corneal transparency and neurite outgrowth. Additional roles, derived from studies of mutant animals, indicate that certain proteoglycans are essential to life whereas others might be redundant. The review focuses on the most recent genetic and molecular biological studies of the matrix proteoglycans, broadly defined as proteoglycans secreted into the pericellular matrix. Special emphasis is placed on the molecular organization of the protein core, the utilization of protein modules, the gene structure and transcriptional control, and the functional roles of the various proteoglycans. When possible, proteoglycans have been grouped into distinct gene families and subfamilies offering a simplified nomenclature based on their protein core design. The structure-function relationship of some paradigmatic proteoglycans is discussed in depth and novel aspects of their biology are examined.
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              ESM-1 is a novel human endothelial cell-specific molecule expressed in lung and regulated by cytokines.

              We here report the identification of a novel human endothelial cell-specific molecule (called ESM-1) cloned from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cDNA library. Constitutive ESM-1 gene expression (as demonstrated by Northern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis) was found in HUVECs but not in the other human cell lines tested. The cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 552 nucleotides and a 1398-nucleotide 3'-untranslated region including several domains involved in mRNA instability and five putative polyadenylation consensus sequences. The deduced 184-amino acid sequence defines a cysteine-rich protein with a functional NH2-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence. Searches in several data bases confirmed the unique identity of this sequence. A rabbit immune serum raised against the 14-kDa COOH-terminal peptide of ESM-1 immunoprecipitated a 20-kDa protein only in ESM-1-transfected COS cells. Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation of HUVEC lysates revealed a specific 20-kDa band corresponding to ESM-1. In addition, constitutive ESM-1 gene expression was shown to be tissue-restricted to the human lung. Southern blot analysis suggests that a single gene encodes ESM-1. A time-dependent up-regulation of ESM-1 mRNA was seen after addition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) or interleukin (IL)-1beta but not with IL-4 or interferon gamma (IFNgamma) alone. In addition, when IFNgamma was combined with TNFalpha, IFNgamma inhibited the TNFalpha-induced increase of ESM-1 mRNA level. These data suggest that ESM-1 may have potent implications in the areas of vascular cell biology and human lung physiology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2016
                12 December 2016
                : 11
                : 3179-3187
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, Larissa
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aghia Sophia Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Maria Kechagia, Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, Mezourlo, 41110, Larissa, Thessaly, Greece, Tel +30 697 217 6916, Email maria.keh@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                copd-11-3179
                10.2147/COPD.S118692
                5161333
                © 2016 Kechagia et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Respiratory medicine

                respiratory disorders, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, endocan

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