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      Biosignal PI, an Affordable Open-Source ECG and Respiration Measurement System

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          Abstract

          Bioimedical pilot projects e.g., telemedicine, homecare, animal and human trials usually involve several physiological measurements. Technical development of these projects is time consuming and in particular costly. A versatile but affordable biosignal measurement platform can help to reduce time and risk while keeping the focus on the important goal and making an efficient use of resources. In this work, an affordable and open source platform for development of physiological signals is proposed. As a first step an 8–12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration monitoring system is developed. Chips based on iCoupler technology have been used to achieve electrical isolation as required by IEC 60601 for patient safety. The result shows the potential of this platform as a base for prototyping compact, affordable, and medically safe measurement systems. Further work involves both hardware and software development to develop modules. These modules may require development of front-ends for other biosignals or just collect data wirelessly from different devices e.g., blood pressure, weight, bioimpedance spectrum, blood glucose, e.g., through Bluetooth. All design and development documents, files and source codes will be available for non-commercial use through project website, BiosignalPI.org.

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          The emergence of cardiovascular disease during urbanisation of Africans.

          To review the available data on risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the influence of urbanisation of Africans on these risk factors, and to examine why stroke emerges as a higher risk than ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in the health transition of black South Africans. A review of published data on mortality from and risk factors of CVD in South Africans. South Africa. South African population groups and communities. The available data on the contribution of stroke and IHD to CVD mortality in South Africa are briefly reviewed, followed by a comparison of published data on the prevalence and/or levels of CVD risk factors in the different South African population groups. The impact of urbanisation of black South Africans on these risk factors is assessed by comparing rural and urban Africans who participated in the Transition and Health during Urbanisation of South Africans (THUSA) study. The mortality rates from CVD confirmed that stroke is a major public health problem amongst black South Africans, possibly because of an increase in hypertension, obesity, smoking habit and hyperfibrinogenaemia during various stages of urbanisation. The available data further suggest that black South Africans may be protected against IHD because of favourable serum lipid profiles (low cholesterol and high ratios of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and low homocysteine values. However, increases in total fat and animal protein intake of affluent black South Africans, who can afford Western diets, are associated with increases in body mass indices of men and women and in total serum cholesterol. These exposures may increase IHD risk in the future.
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            Ageing of population and health care expenditure: a red herring?

            This paper studies the relationship between health care expenditure (HCE) and age, using longitudinal rather than cross-sectional data. The econometric analysis of HCE in the last eight quarters of life of individuals who died during the period 1983-1992 indicates that HCE depends on remaining lifetime but not on calendar age, at least beyond 65+. The positive relationship between age and HCE observed in cross-sectional data may be caused by the simple fact that at age 80, for example, there are many more individuals living in their last 2 years than at age 65. The limited impact of age on HCE suggests that population ageing may contribute much less to future growth of the health care sector than claimed by most observers. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              Home telehealth--current state and future trends.

              The purpose of this paper is to give an overview about the state of the art in research on home telehealth in an international perspective. The study is based on a review of the scientific literature published between 1990 and 2003 and retrieved via Medline in January/February 2004. All together, the abstracts of 578 publications have been analyzed. The majority of publications (44%) comes from the United States, followed by UK and Japan. Most publications deal with vital sign parameter (VSP) measurement and audio/video consultations ("virtual visits"). Publications about IT tools for improved information access and communication as well as decision support for staff, patients and relatives are relatively sparse. Clinical application domains are mainly chronic diseases, the elderly population and paediatrics. Internationally, we observe a trend towards tools and services not only for professionals but also for patients and citizens. However, their impact on the patient-provider relationship and their design for special user groups, such as elderly and/or disabled needs to be further explored. In general, evaluation studies are rare and further research is critical to determine the impacts and benefits, and limitations, of potential solutions and to overcome a number of hinders and restrictions, such as - the lack of standards to combine incompatible information systems; - the lack of an evaluation framework considering legal, ethical, organisational, clinical, usability and technical aspects; - the lack of proper guidelines for practical implementation of home telehealth solutions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                January 2015
                23 December 2014
                : 15
                : 1
                : 93-109
                Affiliations
                [1 ] School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Alfred Nobels Allé 10, Stockholm SE-141 52, Sweden; E-Mails: jsnall@ 123456kth.se (J.S.); aslamy@ 123456kth.se (B.A.); shirin.abtahi@ 123456gmail.com (S.A.); fsm@ 123456kth.se (F.S.); kaj.lindecrantz@ 123456sth.kth.se (K.L.)
                [2 ] Academy of Care, Wellbeing and Welfare, University of Borås, Allégatan 1, Borås SE-501 90, Sweden
                [3 ] Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Hälsovägen 7, Stockholm SE-141 57, Sweden
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Panicos Kyriacou

                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: farhad.abtahi@ 123456sth.kth.se ; Tel.: +46-704-689-002.
                Article
                sensors-15-00093
                10.3390/s150100093
                4327009
                25545268
                db9e4097-4671-4e04-b086-a2fc2952a7eb
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                History
                : 30 October 2014
                : 15 December 2014
                Categories
                Article

                Biomedical engineering
                affordable ecg,raspberry pi,adas1000 analog front-end,open-source,respiration monitoring,thoracic bioimpedance,medical device development

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