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      Protein sorting at the ER–Golgi interface

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      The Journal of Cell Biology
      The Rockefeller University Press

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          Abstract

          In this review, Gomez-Navarro and Miller summarize the principles of cargo sorting by the vesicle traffic machinery and consider the diverse mechanisms by which cargo proteins are selected and captured into different transport vesicles.

          Abstract

          Protein traffic is of critical importance for normal cellular physiology. In eukaryotes, spherical transport vesicles move proteins and lipids from one internal membrane-bound compartment to another within the secretory pathway. The process of directing each individual protein to a specific destination (known as protein sorting) is a crucial event that is intrinsically linked to vesicle biogenesis. In this review, we summarize the principles of cargo sorting by the vesicle traffic machinery and consider the diverse mechanisms by which cargo proteins are selected and captured into different transport vesicles. We focus on the first two compartments of the secretory pathway: the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. We provide an overview of the complexity and diversity of cargo adaptor function and regulation, focusing on recent mechanistic discoveries that have revealed insight into protein sorting in cells.

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          Most cited references96

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          COPII: a membrane coat formed by Sec proteins that drive vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum.

          In vitro synthesis of endoplasmic reticulum-derived transport vesicles has been reconstituted with washed membranes and three soluble proteins (Sar1p, Sec13p complex, and Sec23p complex). Vesicle formation requires GTP but can be driven by nonhydrolyzable analogs such as GMP-PNP. However, GMP-PNP vesicles fail to target and fuse with the Golgi complex whereas GTP vesicles are functional. All the cytosolic proteins required for vesicle formation are retained on GMP-PNP vesicles, while Sar1p dissociates from GTP vesicles. Thin section electron microscopy of purified preparations reveals a uniform population of 60-65 nm vesicles with a 10 nm thick electron dense coat. The subunits of this novel coat complex are molecularly distinct from the constituents of the nonclathrin coatomer involved in intra-Golgi transport. Because the overall cycle of budding driven by these two types of coats appears mechanistically similar, we propose that the coat structures be called COPI and COPII.
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            Bi-directional protein transport between the ER and Golgi.

            The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi comprise the first two steps in protein secretion. Vesicular carriers mediate a continuous flux of proteins and lipids between these compartments, reflecting the transport of newly synthesized proteins out of the ER and the retrieval of escaped ER residents and vesicle machinery. Anterograde and retrograde transport is mediated by distinct sets of cytosolic coat proteins, the COPII and COPI coats, respectively, which act on the membrane to capture cargo proteins into nascent vesicles. We review the mechanisms that govern coat recruitment to the membrane, cargo capture into a transport vesicle, and accurate delivery to the target organelle.
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              TANGO1 facilitates cargo loading at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites.

              A genome-wide screen revealed previously unidentified components required for transport and Golgi organization (TANGO). We now provide evidence that one of these proteins, TANGO1, is an integral membrane protein localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites, with a luminal SH3 domain and a cytoplasmic proline-rich domain (PRD). Knockdown of TANGO1 inhibits export of bulky collagen VII from the ER. The SH3 domain of TANGO1 binds to collagen VII; the PRD binds to the COPII coat subunits, Sec23/24. In this scenario, PRD binding to Sec23/24 subunits could stall COPII carrier biogenesis to permit the luminal domain of TANGO1 to guide SH3-bound cargo into a growing carrier. All cells except those of hematopoietic origin express TANGO1. We propose that TANGO1 exports other cargoes in cells that do not secrete collagen VII. However, TANGO1 does not enter the budding carrier, which represents a unique mechanism to load cargo into COPII carriers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                J. Cell Biol
                jcb
                jcb
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                19 December 2016
                : 215
                : 6
                : 769-778
                Affiliations
                [1]Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, England, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Elizabeth Miller: emiller@ 123456mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk
                Article
                201610031
                10.1083/jcb.201610031
                5166505
                27903609
                dbc28532-355a-4660-9d05-57a5807bff90
                © 2016 Gomez-Navarro and Miller

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

                History
                : 11 October 2016
                : 02 November 2016
                : 17 November 2016
                Funding
                Funded by: Medical Research Council https://doi.org/10.13039/501100000265
                Award ID: MC_UP_1201/10
                Categories
                Reviews
                Review
                35
                46
                34

                Cell biology
                Cell biology

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