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      Egg Case Silk Gene Sequences from Argiope Spiders: Evidence for Multiple Loci and a Loss of Function Between Paralogs

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          Spiders swath their eggs with silk to protect developing embryos and hatchlings. Egg case silks, like other fibrous spider silks, are primarily composed of proteins called spidroins (spidroin = spider-fibroin). Silks, and thus spidroins, are important throughout the lives of spiders, yet the evolution of spidroin genes has been relatively understudied. Spidroin genes are notoriously difficult to sequence because they are typically very long (≥ 10 kb of coding sequence) and highly repetitive. Here, we investigate the evolution of spider silk genes through long-read sequencing of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones. We demonstrate that the silver garden spider Argiope argentata has multiple egg case spidroin loci with a loss of function at one locus. We also use degenerate PCR primers to search the genomic DNA of congeneric species and find evidence for multiple egg case spidroin loci in other Argiope spiders. Comparative analyses show that these multiple loci are more similar at the nucleotide level within a species than between species. This pattern is consistent with concerted evolution homogenizing gene copies within a genome. More complicated explanations include convergent evolution or recent independent gene duplications within each species.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Consed: a graphical tool for sequence finishing.

          Sequencing of large clones or small genomes is generally done by the shotgun approach (Anderson et al. 1982). This has two phases: (1) a shotgun phase in which a number of reads are generated from random subclones and assembled into contigs, followed by (2) a directed, or finishing phase in which the assembly is inspected for correctness and for various kinds of data anomalies (such as contaminant reads, unremoved vector sequence, and chimeric or deleted reads), additional data are collected to close gaps and resolve low quality regions, and editing is performed to correct assembly or base-calling errors. Finishing is currently a bottleneck in large-scale sequencing efforts, and throughput gains will depend both on reducing the need for human intervention and making it as efficient as possible. We have developed a finishing tool, consed, which attempts to implement these principles. A distinguishing feature relative to other programs is the use of error probabilities from our programs phred and phrap as an objective criterion to guide the entire finishing process. More information is available at http:// www.genome.washington.edu/consed/consed. html.
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            PipMaker--a web server for aligning two genomic DNA sequences.

            PipMaker (http://bio.cse.psu.edu) is a World-Wide Web site for comparing two long DNA sequences to identify conserved segments and for producing informative, high-resolution displays of the resulting alignments. One display is a percent identity plot (pip), which shows both the position in one sequence and the degree of similarity for each aligning segment between the two sequences in a compact and easily understandable form. Positions along the horizontal axis can be labeled with features such as exons of genes and repetitive elements, and colors can be used to clarify and enhance the display. The web site also provides a plot of the locations of those segments in both species (similar to a dot plot). PipMaker is appropriate for comparing genomic sequences from any two related species, although the types of information that can be inferred (e.g., protein-coding regions and cis-regulatory elements) depend on the level of conservation and the time and divergence rate since the separation of the species. Gene regulatory elements are often detectable as similar, noncoding sequences in species that diverged as much as 100-300 million years ago, such as humans and mice, Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae, or Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. PipMaker supports analysis of unfinished or "working draft" sequences by permitting one of the two sequences to be in unoriented and unordered contigs.
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              Application of a time-delay neural network to promoter annotation in the Drosophila melanogaster genome.

               Martin Reese (2001)
              Computational methods for automated genome annotation are critical to understanding and interpreting the bewildering mass of genomic sequence data presently being generated and released. A neural network model of the structural and compositional properties of a eukaryotic core promoter region has been developed and its application for analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster genome is presented. The model uses a time-delay architecture, a special case of a feed-forward neural network. The structure of this model allows for variable spacing between functional binding sites, which is known to play a key role in the transcription initiation process. Application of this model to a test set of core promoters not only gave better discrimination of potential promoter sites than previous statistical or neural network models, but also revealed indirectly subtle properties of the transcription initiation signal. When tested in the Adh region of 2.9 Mbases of the Drosophila genome, the neural network for promoter prediction (NNPP) program that incorporates the time-delay neural network model gives a recognition rate of 75% (69/92) with a false positive rate of 1/547 bases. The present work can be regarded as one of the first intensive studies that applies novel gene regulation technologies to the identification of the complex gene regulation sites in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster.

                Author and article information

                G3 (Bethesda)
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics
                Genetics Society of America
                10 November 2017
                January 2018
                : 8
                : 1
                : 231-238
                [* ]Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521
                []Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York 10024
                []Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York 10024
                Author notes
                [1 ]Corresponding author: Advanced Light Microscopy Core, Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Sam Jackson Rd., Portland, OR 97239. E-mail: chaw@ 123456ohsu.edu
                Copyright © 2018 Chaw et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 8


                evolution, gene family, spider silk, tubuliform spidroin, tusp1


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