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      Effects of stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice on dental calculus, dental plaque, gingivitis, halitosis and stain: A systematic review

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the scientific evidence for the efficacy of stabilized stannous fluoride (SnF 2) dentifrice in relation to dental calculus, dental plaque, gingivitis, halitosis and staining.

          Data and sources

          Medline OVID, Embase.com, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception until June 2017. Six researchers independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. A meta-analysis of the 6-month gingivitis studies was done. Risk of bias was estimated using a checklist from the Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment (SBU, 2018).

          Study selection

          Two studies on dental calculus, 21 on dental plaque and gingivitis, 4 on halitosis, and 5 on stain met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias was high for the studies on dental calculus, halitosis, and stain, and varied for the dental plaque and gingivitis studies. Significant reductions in dental calculus and in halitosis were reported for the SnF 2 dentifrice; no differences in stain reduction were noted. A meta-analysis on gingivitis found better results for the SnF 2 dentifrice compared to other dentifrices, though the results of the individual trials in the meta-analyses showed a substantial heterogeneity.

          Conclusions

          The present review found that stabilized SnF 2 toothpaste had a positive effect on the reduction of dental calculus build-up, dental plaque, gingivitis, stain and halitosis. A tendency towards a more pronounced effect than using toothpastes not containing SnF2 was found. However, a new generation of well conducted randomized trials are needed to further support these findings.

          Clinical relevance

          Adding a SnF 2 toothpaste to the daily oral care routine is an easy strategy that may have multiple oral health benefits.

          Abstract

          Dentistry; Stabilized stannous fluoride; Dental calculus; Dental plaque; Gingivitis; Halitosis; Stain.

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          Most cited references 60

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          PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN PREGNANCY. II. CORRELATION BETWEEN ORAL HYGIENE AND PERIODONTAL CONDTION.

           J SILNESS,  H Löe (1964)
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            Reduced plaque formation by the chloromethyl analogue of victamine C.

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              The long-term effect of a plaque control program on tooth mortality, caries and periodontal disease in adults. Results after 30 years of maintenance.

              The biofilm that forms and remains on tooth surfaces is the main etiological factor in caries and periodontal disease. Prevention of caries and periodontal disease must be based on means that counteract this bacterial plaque. To monitor the incidence of tooth loss, caries and attachment loss during a 30-year period in a group of adults who maintained a carefully managed plaque control program. In addition, a comparison was made regarding the oral health status of individuals who, in 1972 and 2002, were 51-65 years old. In 1971 and 1972, more than 550 subjects were recruited. Three hundred and seventy-five subjects formed a test group and 180 a control group. After 6 years of monitoring, the control group was discontinued but the participants in the test group was maintained in the preventive program and was finally re-examined after 30 years. The following variables were studied at Baseline and after 3, 6, 15 and 30 years: plaque, caries, probing pocket depth, probing attachment level and CPITN. Each patient was given a detailed case presentation and education in self-diagnosis. Once every 2 months during the first 2 years, once every 3-12 months during years 3-30, the participants received, on an individual need basis, additional education in self-diagnosis and self-care focused on proper plaque control measures, including the use of toothbrushes and interdental cleaning devices (brush, dental tape, toothpick). The prophylactic sessions that were handled by a dental hygienist also included (i) plaque disclosure and (ii) professional mechanical tooth cleaning including the use of a fluoride-containing dentifrice/paste. Few teeth were lost during the 30 years of maintenance; 0.4-1.8 in different age cohorts. The main reason for tooth loss was root fracture; only 21 teeth were lost because of progressive periodontitis or caries. The mean number of new caries lesions was 1.2, 1.7 and 2.1 in the three groups. About 80% of the lesions were classified as recurrent caries. Most sites, buccal sites being the exception, exhibited no sign of attachment loss. Further, on approximal surfaces there was some gain of attachment between 1972 and 2002 in all age groups. The present study reported on the 30-year outcome of preventive dental treatment in a group of carefully monitored subjects who on a regular basis were encouraged, but also enjoyed and recognized the benefit of, maintaining a high standard of oral hygiene. The incidence of caries and periodontal disease as well as tooth mortality in this subject sample was very small. Since all preventive and treatment efforts during the 30 years were delivered in one private dental office, caution must be exercised when comparisons are made with longitudinal studies that present oral disease data from randomly selected subject samples.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Heliyon
                Heliyon
                Heliyon
                Elsevier
                2405-8440
                09 December 2019
                December 2019
                09 December 2019
                : 5
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Dental Medicine, Division Oral Diseases, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
                [b ]Department of Cariology, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
                [c ]Department of Odontology, Dental School, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
                [d ]Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. annsofi.johannsen@ 123456ki.se
                Article
                S2405-8440(19)36509-0 e02850
                10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02850
                6909063
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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