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      Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness operational product

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      Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
      American Geophysical Union (AGU)

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          Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols.

          Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of shortwavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes.
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            The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing.

            Calculations of the effects of both natural and anthropogenic tropospheric sulfate aerosols indicate that the aerosol climate forcing is sufficiently large in a number of regions of the Northern Hemisphere to reduce significantly the positive forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Summer sulfate aerosol forcing in the Northern Hemisphere completely offsets the greenhouse forcing over the eastern United States and central Europe. Anthropogenic sulfate aerosols contribute a globally averaged annual forcing of -0.3 watt per square meter as compared with +2.1 watts per square meter for greenhouse gases. Sources of the difference in magnitude with the previous estimate of Charlson et al. are discussed.
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              Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
                J. Geophys. Res.
                American Geophysical Union (AGU)
                01480227
                July 27 1997
                July 27 1997
                : 102
                : D14
                : 16889-16909
                Article
                10.1029/96JD04009
                dbdd4582-b8a8-40b3-8892-a73dde3b781c
                © 1997

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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