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      Integration of biological networks and gene expression data using Cytoscape

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          Cytoscape is a free software package for visualizing, modeling and analyzing molecular and genetic interaction networks. This protocol explains how to use Cytoscape to analyze the results of mRNA expression profiling, and other functional genomics and proteomics experiments, in the context of an interaction network obtained for genes of interest. Five major steps are described: (i) obtaining a gene or protein network, (ii) displaying the network using layout algorithms, (iii) integrating with gene expression and other functional attributes, (iv) identifying putative complexes and functional modules and (v) identifying enriched Gene Ontology annotations in the network. These steps provide a broad sample of the types of analyses performed by Cytoscape.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium.

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            Is Open Access

            ArrayExpress—a public database of microarray experiments and gene expression profiles

            ArrayExpress is a public database for high throughput functional genomics data. ArrayExpress consists of two parts—the ArrayExpress Repository, which is a MIAME supportive public archive of microarray data, and the ArrayExpress Data Warehouse, which is a database of gene expression profiles selected from the repository and consistently re-annotated. Archived experiments can be queried by experiment attributes, such as keywords, species, array platform, authors, journals or accession numbers. Gene expression profiles can be queried by gene names and properties, such as Gene Ontology terms and gene expression profiles can be visualized. ArrayExpress is a rapidly growing database, currently it contains data from >50 000 hybridizations and >1 500 000 individual expression profiles. ArrayExpress supports community standards, including MIAME, MAGE-ML and more recently the proposal for a spreadsheet based data exchange format: MAGE-TAB. Availability: .
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              Conserved patterns of protein interaction in multiple species.

              To elucidate cellular machinery on a global scale, we performed a multiple comparison of the recently available protein-protein interaction networks of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This comparison integrated protein interaction and sequence information to reveal 71 network regions that were conserved across all three species and many exclusive to the metazoans. We used this conservation, and found statistically significant support for 4,645 previously undescribed protein functions and 2,609 previously undescribed protein interactions. We tested 60 interaction predictions for yeast by two-hybrid analysis, confirming approximately half of these. Significantly, many of the predicted functions and interactions would not have been identified from sequence similarity alone, demonstrating that network comparisons provide essential biological information beyond what is gleaned from the genome.

                Author and article information

                Nature Protocols
                Nat Protoc
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                October 2007
                September 27 2007
                October 2007
                : 2
                : 10
                : 2366-2382
                © 2007


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