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      Ischemic and Postischemic Conditioning of the Myocardium in Clinical Practice: Challenges, Expectations and Obstacles

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          Abstract

          Conditioning refers to endogenous mechanisms rendering the myocardium more tolerant against reperfusion injury. Application of brief ischemia-reperfusion cycles prior to the index ischemia has a beneficial effect and limits the infarct size. This is called preconditioning and is mainly mediated by activation of adenosine, bradykinin, opioid and other receptors, with subsequent activation of intracellular mediators leading to mitochondrial protection. A clinical equivalent of preconditioning is preinfarction angina. Benefits for the ischemic and reperfused myocardium are also provided by repetitive short-lived cycles of ischemia-reperfusion applied after the index ischemia. This is termed postconditioning, shares a common pathway with preconditioning, and is more useful and relevant in clinical practice. Finally, benefits are also derived from remote conditioning, i.e. ischemia applied in a remote vascular territory parallel with or immediately after the index myocardial ischemia. Several pharmacological interventions may interfere with these mechanisms leading to enhanced protection of the myocardium and limitation of the infarct size. Despite the huge interest and the great body of evidence that verify the effectiveness of conditioning, clinical application has remained limited due to controversies over the appropriate intervention protocol, but also interference of medication, comorbidities and other factors that may enhance or blur the protective effect.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Cardiac Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Coronary Stenting (CRISP Stent) Study: a prospective, randomized control trial.

          Myocyte necrosis as a result of elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) occurs in approximately one third of cases and is associated with subsequent cardiovascular events. This study assessed the ability of remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) to attenuate cardiac troponin I (cTnI) release after elective PCI. Two hundred forty-two consecutive patients undergoing elective PCI with undetectable preprocedural cTnI were recruited. Subjects were randomized to receive remote IPC (induced by three 5-minute inflations of a blood pressure cuff to 200 mm Hg around the upper arm, followed by 5-minute intervals of reperfusion) or control (an uninflated cuff around the arm) before arrival in the catheter laboratory. The primary outcome was cTnI at 24 hours after PCI. Secondary outcomes included renal dysfunction and major adverse cardiac and cerebral event rate at 6 months. The median cTnI at 24 hours after PCI was lower in the remote IPC compared with the control group (0.06 versus 0.16 ng/mL; P=0.040). After remote IPC, cTnI was <0.04 ng/mL in 44 patients (42%) compared with 24 in the control group (24%; P=0.01). Subjects who received remote IPC experienced less chest discomfort (P=0.0006) and ECG ST-segment deviation (P=0.005) than control subjects. At 6 months, the major adverse cardiac and cerebral event rate was lower in the remote IPC group (4 versus 13 events; P=0.018). Remote IPC reduces ischemic chest discomfort during PCI, attenuates procedure-related cTnI release, and appears to reduce subsequent cardiovascular events.
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            Inhibition of permeability transition pore opening by mitochondrial STAT3 and its role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion

            The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) contributes to cardioprotection by ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Mitochondria are central elements of cardioprotective signaling, most likely by delaying mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, and STAT3 has recently been identified in mitochondria. We now characterized the mitochondrial localization of STAT3 and its impact on respiration and MPTP opening. STAT3 was mainly present in the matrix of subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar cardiomyocyte mitochondria. STAT1, but not STAT5 was also detected in mitochondria under physiological conditions. ADP-stimulated respiration was reduced in mitochondria from mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of STAT3 (STAT3-KO) versus wildtypes and in rat mitochondria treated with the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic (STAT3 inhibitory compound, 6-Nitrobenzo[b]thiophene 1,1-dioxide). Mitochondria from STAT3-KO mice and Stattic-treated rat mitochondria tolerated less calcium until MPTP opening occurred. STAT3 co-immunoprecipitated with cyclophilin D, the target of the cardioprotective agent and MPTP inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). However, CsA reduced infarct size to a similar extent in wildtype and STAT3-KO mice in vivo. Thus, STAT3 possibly contributes to cardioprotection by stimulation of respiration and inhibition of MPTP opening.
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              Protection against infarction afforded by preconditioning is mediated by A1 adenosine receptors in rabbit heart.

              Preconditioning (5 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 minutes of recovery) renders the heart very resistant to infarction from subsequent ischemia. This study tests whether adenosine receptors might mediate preconditioning protection. We examined the effect on infarct size of pretreatment with either of two adenosine receptor antagonists in both control and preconditioned in situ rabbit hearts. Hearts underwent 30 minutes of regional ischemia plus 3 hours of reperfusion, and infarct size was measured with tetrazolium. Infarct size averaged 39% of the zone at risk in controls but only 8% in preconditioned hearts. Preconditioned and nonpreconditioned hearts receiving either blocker had infarcts not different in size from the controls. A 5-minute intracoronary infusion of adenosine was as effective as 5 minutes of ischemia in protecting parabiotically perfused isolated hearts against infarction from a 45-minute ischemic insult. Similarly, intracoronary infusion of N6-1-(phenyl-2R-isopropyl)adenosine, an A1-selective adenosine receptor agonist, at a dose that delayed conduction but did not dilate the coronary vessels, also limited infarct size. The protection disappeared when we reduced the coronary concentration of drug by intravenous infusion of adenosine, indicating that cardiac rather than peripheral receptors were involved in the protection. We conclude that adenosine released during the preconditioning occlusion stimulates cardiac A1 receptors, which leaves the heart protected against infarction even after the adenosine has been withdrawn.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2014
                September 2014
                10 September 2014
                : 129
                : 2
                : 117-125
                Affiliations
                aSecond Department of Cardiology, Medical School, Attikon University Hospital, and bDepartment of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; cDepartment of Cardiology, Elisabeth Krankenhaus, Essen, Germany
                Author notes
                *Efstathios K. Iliodromitis, MD, Second Department of Cardiology, Medical School, Attikon University Hospital, Rimini 1, Haidari, GR-12462 Athens (Greece), E-Mail iliodromitis@yahoo.gr
                Article
                362499 Cardiology 2014;129:117-125
                10.1159/000362499
                25227478
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Turning Basic Research into Clinical Success

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