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      Detection of Multiple Cracks in Four-Point Bending Tests Using the Coda Wave Interferometry Method

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          Abstract

          The enlargement of the cracks outside the permitted dimension is one of the main causes for the reduction of service life of Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures. Cracks can develop due to many causes such as dynamic or static load. When tensile stress exceeds the tensile strength of RC, cracks appear. Traditional techniques have limitations in early stage damage detection and localisation, especially on large-scale structures. The ultrasonic Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) method using diffuse waves is one of the most promising methods to detect subtle changes in heterogeneous materials, such as concrete. In this paper, the assessment of the CWI method applied for multiple cracks opening detection on two specimens based on four-point bending test is presented. Both beams were monitored using a limited number of embedded Ultrasonic (US) transducers as well as other transducers and techniques (e.g., Digital Image Correlation (DIC), LVDT sensors, strain gauges, and Fiber Optics Sensor (FOS)). Results show that strain change and crack formation are successfully and efficiently detected by CWI method even earlier than by the other techniques. The CWI technique using embedded US transducers is undoubtedly a feasible, efficient, and promising method for long-term monitoring on real infrastructure.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Coda wave interferometry for estimating nonlinear behavior in seismic velocity.

          In coda wave interferometry, one records multiply scattered waves at a limited number of receivers to infer changes in the medium over time. With this technique, we have determined the nonlinear dependence of the seismic velocity in granite on temperature and the associated acoustic emissions. This technique can be used in warning mode, to detect the presence of temporal changes in the medium, or in diagnostic mode, where the temporal change in the medium is quantified.
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            Acoustic emission monitoring of bridges: Review and case studies

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              Road evaluation with ground penetrating radar

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                sensors
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                02 April 2020
                April 2020
                : 20
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin, Germany; ernst.niederleithinger@ 123456bam.de
                [2 ]Research and development department, NeoStrain Sp. z o.o, Lipowa 3, 30-702 Krakow, Poland; joyraj@ 123456neostrain.pl
                [3 ]IFSTTAR, COSYS-SII, Route de Bouaye, F-44344 Bouguenais, France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: xin.wang@ 123456bam.de
                Article
                sensors-20-01986
                10.3390/s20071986
                7180998
                32252283
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Biomedical engineering

                damage detection, shm, cracks, reinforced concrete, coda wave interferometry

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