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      Blastocystis Colonization Is Associated with Increased Diversity and Altered Gut Bacterial Communities in Healthy Malian Children

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          Abstract

          Blastocystis is the most common protozoan colonizing the gut of vertebrates. It modulates the human digestive microbiota in the absence of inflammation and gastrointestinal disease. Although it has been associated with human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, its pathogenicity remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the influence of Blastocystis on the gut bacterial communities in healthy children. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 147 Blastocystis-colonized and 149 Blastocystis-noncolonized Malian children, with Blastocystis colonization assessed by real-time PCR and gut microbial communities characterized via 16S rRNA gene (Illumina MiSeq) sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The gut microbiota diversity was higher in Blastocystis-colonized compared to Blastocystis-noncolonized children. The phyla Firmicutes, Elusimicrobia, Lentisphaerae, and Euryarchaeota were higher in Blastocystis-colonized children, whereas Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, unassigned bacteria, and Deinococcus–Thermus were higher in Blastocystis-noncolonized children. Moreover, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (family Ruminococcaceae) and Roseburia sp. (family Lachnospiraceae) abundance was higher in Blastocystis-colonized children. We conclude that Blastocystis colonization is significantly associated with a higher diversity of the gut bacterial communities in healthy children, while it is not associated with the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the human gut.

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          Most cited references 35

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          New insights on classification, identification, and clinical relevance of Blastocystis spp.

           Kevin S W Tan (2008)
          Blastocystis is an unusual enteric protozoan parasite of humans and many animals. It has a worldwide distribution and is often the most commonly isolated organism in parasitological surveys. The parasite has been described since the early 1900s, but only in the last decade or so have there been significant advances in our understanding of Blastocystis biology. However, the pleomorphic nature of the parasite and the lack of standardization in techniques have led to confusion and, in some cases, misinterpretation of data. This has hindered laboratory diagnosis and efforts to understand its mode of reproduction, life cycle, prevalence, and pathogenesis. Accumulating epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro data strongly suggest that Blastocystis is a pathogen. Many genotypes exist in nature, and recent observations indicate that humans are, in reality, hosts to numerous zoonotic genotypes. Such genetic diversity has led to a suggestion that previously conflicting observations on the pathogenesis of Blastocystis are due to pathogenic and nonpathogenic genotypes. Recent epidemiological, animal infection, and in vitro host-Blastocystis interaction studies suggest that this may indeed be the case. This review focuses on such recent advances and also provides updates on laboratory and clinical aspects of Blastocystis spp.
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            Anti-inflammatory properties of the short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate: a study with relevance to inflammatory bowel disease.

            To compare the anti-inflammatory properties of butyrate with two other SCFAs, namely acetate and propionate, which have less well-documented effects on inflammation. The effect of SCFAs on cytokine release from human neutrophils was studied with ELISA. SCFA-dependent modulation of NF-kappaB reporter activity was assessed in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, Colo320DM. Finally, the effect of SCFAs on gene expression and cytokine release, measured with RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively, was studied in mouse colon organ cultures established from colitic mice. Acetate, propionate and butyrate at 30 mmol/L decreased LPS-stimulated TNFalpha release from neutrophils, without affecting IL-8 protein release. All SCFAs dose dependently inhibited NF-kappaB reporter activity in Colo320DM cells. Propionate dose-dependently suppressed IL-6 mRNA and protein release from colon organ cultures and comparative studies revealed that propionate and butyrate at 30 mmol/L caused a strong inhibition of immune-related gene expression, whereas acetate was less effective. A similar inhibition was achieved with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132, but not the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. All SCFAs decreased IL-6 protein release from organ cultures. In the present study propionate and butyrate were equipotent, whereas acetate was less effective, at suppressing NF-kappaB reporter activity, immune-related gene expression and cytokine release in vitro. Our findings suggest that propionate and acetate, in addition to butyrate, could be useful in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, including IBD.
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              High Prevalence of Methanobrevibacter smithii and Methanosphaera stadtmanae Detected in the Human Gut Using an Improved DNA Detection Protocol

              Background The low and variable prevalence of Methanobrevibacter smithii and Methanosphaera stadtmanae DNA in human stool contrasts with the paramount role of these methanogenic Archaea in digestion processes. We hypothesized that this contrast is a consequence of the inefficiencies of current protocols for archaeon DNA extraction. We developed a new protocol for the extraction and PCR-based detection of M. smithii and M. stadtmanae DNA in human stool. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool specimens collected from 700 individuals were filtered, mechanically lysed twice, and incubated overnight with proteinase K prior to DNA extraction using a commercial DNA extraction kit. Total DNA was used as a template for quantitative real-time PCR targeting M. smithii and M. stadtmanae 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. Amplification of 16S rRNA and rpoB yielded positive detection of M. smithii in 95.7% and M. stadtmanae in 29.4% of specimens. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene PCR products from 30 randomly selected specimens (15 for M. smithii and 15 for M. stadtmanae) yielded a sequence similarity of 99–100% using the reference M. smithii ATCC 35061 and M. stadtmanae DSM 3091 sequences. Conclusions/Significance In contrast to previous reports, these data indicate a high prevalence of the methanogens M. smithii and M. stadtmanae in the human gut, with the former being an almost ubiquitous inhabitant of the intestinal microbiome.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Microorganisms
                Microorganisms
                microorganisms
                Microorganisms
                MDPI
                2076-2607
                04 December 2019
                December 2019
                : 7
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Aix Marseille Université, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Service de Santé des Armées, VITROME: Vecteurs—Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France; alykodio81@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]IHU Méditerranée Infection, 19-21 Bd Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France; fadi.BITTAR@ 123456univ-amu.fr (F.B.); frederique.gouriet@ 123456ap-hm.fr (F.G.); didier.raoult@ 123456gmail.com (D.R.)
                [3 ]Malaria Research and Training Centre-International Center for Excellence in Research (MRTC-ICER), Department of Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Université des Sciences, des Techniques et des Technologies de Bamako, Point G, BP 1805 Bamako, Mali; coulibalyd@ 123456icermali.org (D.C.); fankone@ 123456icermali.org (A.K.K.); sakonate@ 123456icermali.org (S.K.); sdoumbo@ 123456icermali.org (S.D.); abdouguindo@ 123456icermali.org (A.G.); mthera@ 123456icermali.org (M.A.T.)
                [4 ]Aix Marseille Université, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Service de Santé des Armées, MEPHI: Microbes, Evolution, Phylogénie et Infection, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France
                Author notes
                Article
                microorganisms-07-00649
                10.3390/microorganisms7120649
                6956266
                31817168
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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