Intercellular communication is pivotal in optimizing and synchronizing cellular responses to keep homeostasis and to respond adequately to external stimuli. In the central nervous system (CNS), glutamatergic and GABAergic signals are postulated to be dependent on the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle for vesicular loading of neurotransmitters, for inactivating the signal and for the replenishment of the neurotransmitters. Islets of Langerhans release the hormones insulin and glucagon, but share similarities with CNS cells in for example transcriptional control of development and differentiation, and chromatin methylation. Interestingly, CNS proteins involved in secretion of the neurotransmitters and emitting their responses as well as the regulation of these processes, are also found in islet cells. Moreover, high levels of glutamate, GABA, and glutamine and their respective vesicular and plasma membrane transporters have been shown in the islet cells and there is emerging support for these amino acids and their transporters playing important roles in the maturation and secretion of insulin and glucagon. In this review, we will discuss the feasibility of recent data in the field in relation to the biophysical properties of the transporters (Slc1, Slc17, Slc32, and Slc38) and physiology of hormone secretion in islets of Langerhans.