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      Pathological and radiological correlation in an autopsy case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

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          We report an educational autopsy case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Radiological patterns of the upper lung were considered as mostly emphysema, but pathological observation revealed significant interstitial fibrosis of usual interstitial pneumonia as a major pathology. The patient eventually developed acute exacerbation of background interstitial pneumonia. Careful radiological and pathological correlation of the current case indicates that regions with distal acinar emphysema on computed tomography image may possess histologically marked dense fibrosis of lethal interstitial pneumonia.

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          Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome: a review.

          There is increasing clinical, radiologic, and pathologic recognition of the coexistence of emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis in the same patient, resulting in a clinical syndrome known as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) that is characterized by dyspnea, upper-lobe emphysema, lower-lobe fibrosis, and abnormalities of gas exchange. This syndrome frequently is complicated by pulmonary hypertension, acute lung injury, and lung cancer. The CPFE syndrome typically occurs in male smokers, and the mortality associated with this condition, especially if pulmonary hypertension is present, is significant. In this review, we explore the current state of the literature and discuss etiologic factors and clinical characteristics of the CPFE syndrome.
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            The prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis combined with emphysema in patients with lung cancer.

            Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a unique disorder of the upper lobe, whereas emphysema is usually associated with lower lobe fibrosis. Although CPFE might increase the risk of lung cancer, the prevalence of CPFE in patients with lung cancer and the incidence of lung cancer in patients with CPFE are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of CPFE in lung cancer patients and to assess the clinical features of these patients. A total of 1143 patients with lung cancer were reviewed. Based on HRCT performed at diagnosis of lung cancer, patients were categorized into four groups: normal, emphysema, fibrosis and CPFE. The clinical characteristics of patients with CPFE were compared with those of the other groups. CPFE, emphysema and fibrosis were identified in 101 (8.9%), 404 (35.3%) and 15 (1.3%) patients with lung cancer, respectively. The median overall survival of CPFE patients (n = 101, 10.8 months) was significantly less than that of normal patients (n = 623, 53.0 months) or that of patients with emphysema alone (n = 404, 21.9 months). Acute lung injury occurred in 20 (19.8%) patients with CPFE. CPFE is more prevalent than fibrosis in patients with lung cancer, and patients with CPFE had a poorer prognosis in the present study. Further investigation is therefore necessary to elucidate whether CPFE is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. © 2011 The Authors; Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
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              Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome in connective tissue disease.

              Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are associated with several interstitial lung diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the recently individualized syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) in a population of patients with CTD. In this multicenter study, we retrospectively investigated data from patients with CTD who also have CPFE. The demographic characteristics of the patients, the results of pulmonary function testing, high-resolution computed tomography, lung biopsy, and treatment, and the outcomes of the patients were analyzed. Data from 34 patients with CTD who were followed up for a mean±SD duration of 8.3±7.0 years were analyzed. Eighteen of the patients had rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 10 had systemic sclerosis (SSc), 4 had mixed or overlap CTD, and 2 had other CTDs. The mean±SD age of the patients was 57±11 years, 23 were men, and 30 were current or former smokers. High-resolution computed tomography revealed emphysema of the upper lung zones and pulmonary fibrosis of the lower zones in all patients, and all patients exhibited dyspnea during exercise. Moderately impaired pulmonary function test results and markedly reduced carbon monoxide transfer capacity were observed. Five patients with SSc exhibited pulmonary hypertension. Four patients died during followup. Patients with CTD and CPFE were significantly younger than an historical control group of patients with idiopathic CPFE and more frequently were female. In addition, patients with CTD and CPFE had higher lung volumes, lower diffusion capacity, higher pulmonary pressures, and more frequently were male than those with CTD and lung fibrosis without emphysema. CPFE warrants inclusion as a novel, distinct pulmonary manifestation within the spectrum of CTD-associated lung diseases in smokers or former smokers, especially in patients with RA or SSc. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                08 July 2015
                : 10
                : 1299-1303
                [1 ]Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toyama, Faculty of Medicine, Toyama, Japan
                [5 ]Laboratory of Pathology, Toyama University Hospital, Toyama, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Junya Fukuoka, Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-7-1, Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501, Japan, Tel +81 95 819 7055, Fax +81 95 819 7056, Email fukuokaj@
                © 2015 Karata et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Case Report

                Respiratory medicine

                interstitial pneumonia, cpfe, aef, smoking, ct


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