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      The Anti-Apoptotic Activity of Albumin for Endothelium Is Mediated by a Partially Cryptic Protein Domain and Reduced by Inhibitors of G-Coupled Protein and PI-3 Kinase, but Is Independent of Radical Scavenging or Bound Lipid

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          Abstract

          Increased vascular disease occurs with low albumin (human serum albumin, HSA), possibly reflecting specific inhibition of endothelial apoptosis reported for tissue culture. Despite the reported specificity for endothelial protection by HSA, the high but physiological concentrations needed appear more consistent with non-specific low-affinity interactions. We reconcile this contradiction by demonstrating protection is mediated by a partially cryptic HSA protein domain, which becomes more exposed and active following cyanogen bromide fragmentation (p < 0.001). Also, although others reported HSA radical scavenging and bound lipids as important for inhibiting apoptosis in non-endothelial cell types, we demonstrate the protective effect for endothelium is unaffected when HSA radical scavenging is blocked by alkylation, or following delipidation. Further probing the mechanism responsible, we found that the G-coupled protein inhibitors pertussis toxin and suramin reduced protection of endothelium by HSA (p < 0.005), while the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein had no effect. Consistent with a role for phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) was inhibition by both wortmannin and LY294002 (p < 0.05), as well as phosphorylation of Akt, while MAP kinase inhibitors had no effect. We conclude the active site in HSA inhibiting endothelial apoptosis is partially cryptic, and acts via a G-coupled protein PI3K-dependent mechanism.

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          PI3K/Akt and apoptosis: size matters.

          Recent research has examined Akt and Akt-related serine-threonine kinases in signaling cascades that regulate cell survival and are important in the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases and in cancer. We seek to recapitulate the research that has helped to define the current understanding of the role of the Akt pathway under normal and pathologic conditions, also in view of genetic models of Akt function. In particular, we will evaluate the mechanisms of Akt regulation and the role of Akt substrates in Akt-dependent biologic responses in the decisions of cell death and cell survival. Here, we hope to establish the mechanisms of apoptosis suppression by Akt kinase as a framework for a more general understanding of growth factor-dependent regulation of cell survival.
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            SB 203580 is a specific inhibitor of a MAP kinase homologue which is stimulated by cellular stresses and interleukin-1.

            A class of pyridinyl imidazoles inhibit the MAP kinase homologue, termed here reactivating kinase (RK) [Lee et al. (1994) Nature 372, 739-746]. We now show that one of these compounds (SB 203580) inhibits RK in vitro (IC50 = 0.6 microM), suppresses the activation of MAPKAP kinase-2 and prevents the phosphorylation of heat shock protein (HSP) 27 in response to interleukin-1, cellular stresses and bacterial endotoxin in vivo. These results establish that MAPKAP kinase-2 is a physiological RK substrate, and that HSP27 is phosphorylated by MAPKAP kinase-2 in vivo. The specificity of SB 203580 was indicated by its failure to inhibit 12 other protein kinases in vitro, and by its lack of effect on the activation of RK kinase and other MAP kinase cascades in vivo. We suggest that SB 203580 will be useful for identifying other physiological roles and targets of RK and MAPKAP kinase-2.
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              PI3K: Downstream AKTion Blocks Apoptosis

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2007
                June 2007
                16 April 2007
                : 44
                : 4
                : 313-324
                Affiliations
                Cellular and Molecular Pathology Research Unit, Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, University of Sydney, Westmead Centre for Oral Health, Westmead, Australia
                Article
                101777 J Vasc Res 2007;44:313–324
                10.1159/000101777
                17438360
                dc015432-9019-4717-88af-07f7f9fbc4d8
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 11 September 2006
                : 18 February 2007
                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 65, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Research Paper

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Cryptic site,G-coupled protein,PI3K,Albumin,Free radicals,Endothelial apoptosis

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