Today, the criteria for diagnosis and treatment have evolved into an evidence-based medicine approach. The need for evidence-based information is especially critical in the management of gestational diabetes, in general, and especially in the use of oral hypoglycemic agents. These agents have been categorically contraindicated for decades in the United States based on anecdotal and/or weak evidence for these recommendations. In this article, the similarities between gestational and type 2 diabetes are described and the rationale for the use of oral hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of both are discussed. The author will show how research from basic sciences (placental transfers) to clinical studies (perinatal outcome) can lead to significant evidence on which to base management recommendations.