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      Vital Pulp Therapy in Permanent Mature Posterior Teeth with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Systematic Review of Treatment Outcomes


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          Background and Objectives: Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in permanent mature teeth is a common indication for nonsurgical root canal treatment (NSRCT), but contemporary studies have reported on vital pulp therapy (VPT) applied in such teeth as a less invasive treatment. This systematic review assessed the outcomes of VPT, including partial and full pulpotomy performed with hydraulic calcium silicate cements (HCSCs) in permanent mature posterior teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods: The PRISMA guidelines were followed. The search strategy included PubMed ®, EMBASE, Cochrane library and grey literature electronic databases. The quality assessment of the identified studies followed the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias, ROBINS-I and Newcastle–Ottawa Scale tools. Results: The search of primary databases identified 142 articles, of which 9 randomized controlled trials and 3 prospective cohort studies were selected for review. The risk-of-bias was assessed as ‘high’ or ‘serious’, ‘fair’, and ‘low’ for three, seven and two articles, respectively. One to five years after VPT using HCSCs, the success rates mostly ranged from 78 to 90%. Based on two articles, the outcomes of the VPT and NSRCT were comparable at one and five years. Despite the necessity for the intra-operative pulp assessment in VPT procedures, the majority of the studies did not fully report on this step or on the time needed to achieve hemostasis. Small sample sizes, of under 23 teeth, were reported in three studies. Conclusions: The reviewed 12 articles reported favorable outcomes of the VPT performed with HCSCs in permanent mature posterior teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, with radiographic success in the range of 81 to 90%. Two articles suggested comparable outcomes of the VPT and root canal treatment. Universal case selection and outcome criteria needs to be established for VPT when considered as an alternative to NSRCT. This evidence supports the need for further research comparing longer-term outcomes of both of the treatment modalities.

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          The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration

          Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarise evidence relating to efficacy and safety of healthcare interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, are not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (quality of reporting of meta-analysis) statement—a reporting guideline published in 1999—there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realising these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this explanation and elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA statement, this document, and the associated website (www.prisma-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
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            Factors affecting the long-term results of endodontic treatment.

            The influence of various factors that may affect the outcome of root canal therapy was evaluated in 356 patients 8 to 10 yr after the treatment. The results of treatment were directly dependent on the preoperative status of the pulp and periapical tissues. The rate of success for cases with vital or nonvital pulps but having no periapical radiolucency exceeded 96%, whereas only 86% of the cases with pulp necrosis and periapical radiolucency showed apical healing. The possibility of instrumenting the root canal to its full length and the level of root filling significantly affected the outcome of treatment. Of all of the periapical lesions present on previously root-filled teeth, only 62% healed after retreatment. The predictability from clinical and radiographic signs of the treatment-outcome in individual cases with preoperative periapical lesions cases was found to be low. Thus, factors which were not measured or identified may be critical to the outcome of endodontic treatment.
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              Quality guidelines for endodontic treatment: consensus report of the European Society of Endodontology.

              The assurance of the quality of a service rendered by a member of the dental profession is an essential feature of any system of peer review in dentistry. This document addresses two essential elements: (i) appropriateness of treatment modality and (ii) quality or level of treatment rendered. In revising these guidelines the European Society of Endodontology is responding to a public and professional need. In receiving care of a specialized nature such as endodontic treatment, patients need and deserve treatment that meets the standard of care generally given by competent practitioners. The European Society of Endodontology has the expertise and professional responsibility necessary to assist the dental profession by instituting guidelines on the standard of care in the special area of Endodontics. In accepting this responsibility the European Society of Endodontology formulated treatment guidelines that are intended to represent current good practice.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Medicina (Kaunas)
                Medicina (Kaunas)
                03 June 2021
                June 2021
                : 57
                : 6
                : 573
                [1 ]Institute of Endodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal; joaninhafpereira@ 123456gmail.com (J.F.P.); disequeira@ 123456gmail.com (D.B.S.)
                [2 ]Health Sciences Research Unit: Nursing, UICISA-E, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal; andreamarques23@ 123456esenfc.pt
                [3 ]MSc Endodontics Program, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 1G6, Canada; s.friedman@ 123456utoronto.ca
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jsantos@ 123456fmed.uc.pt ; Tel.: +351-239-249-151
                Author information
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 05 May 2021
                : 31 May 2021

                irreversible pulpitis,pulpotomy,calcium silicate cements,vital pulp therapy,systematic review,mineral trioxide aggregate


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