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      Primary Hyperoxaluria

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          Primary hyperoxalurias (PH) are inborn errors in the metabolism of glyoxylate and oxalate. PH type 1, the most common form, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the liver-specific enzyme alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) resulting in overproduction and excessive urinary excretion of oxalate. Recurrent urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis are the hallmarks of the disease. As glomerular filtration rate decreases due to progressive renal damage, oxalate accumulates leading to systemic oxalosis. Diagnosis is often delayed and is based on clinical and sonographic findings, urinary oxalate assessment, DNA analysis, and, if necessary, direct AGT activity measurement in liver biopsy tissue. Early initiation of conservative treatment, including high fluid intake, inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization, and pyridoxine in responsive cases, can help to maintain renal function in compliant subjects. In end-stage renal disease patients, the best outcomes have been achieved with combined liver-kidney transplantation which corrects the enzyme defect.

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          Urinary volume, water and recurrences in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis: a 5-year randomized prospective study.

           L Borghi,  T Meschi,  F Amato (1996)
          We define the role of urine volume as a stone risk factor in idiopathic calcium stone disease and test the actual preventive effectiveness of a high water intake. We studied 101 controls and 199 patients from the first idiopathic calcium stone episode. After a baseline study period the stone formers were divided by randomization into 2 groups (1 and 2) and they were followed prospectively for 5 years. Followup in group 1 only involved a high intake of water without any dietetic change, while followup in group 2 did not involve any treatment. Each year clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation was obtained to determine urinary stone risk profile (including relative supersaturations of calcium oxalate, brushite and uric acid by Equil 2), recurrence rate and mean time to relapse. The original urine volume was lower in male and female stone formers compared to controls (men with calcium oxalate stones 1,057 +/- 238 ml./24 hours versus normal men 1,401 +/- 562 ml./24 hours, p < 0.0001 and women calcium oxalate stones 990 +/- 230 ml./24 hours versus normal women 1,239 +/- 440 ml./24 hours, p < 0.001). During followup recurrences were noted within 5 years in 12 of 99 group 1 patients and in 27 of 100 group 2 patients (p = 0.008). The average interval for recurrences was 38.7 +/- 13.2 months in group 1 and 25.1 +/- 16.4 months in group 2 (p = 0.016). The relative supersaturations for calcium oxalate, brushite and uric acid were much greater in baseline urine of the stone patients in both groups compared to controls. During followup, baseline values decreased sharply only in group 1. Finally the baseline urine in patients with recurrences was characterized by a higher calcium excretion compared to urine of the patients without recurrences in both groups. We conclude that urine volume is a real stone risk factor in nephrolithiasis and that a large intake of water is the initial therapy for prevention of stone recurrences. In cases of hypercalciuria it is suitable to prescribe adjuvant specific diets or drug therapy.
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            Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: update and additional mutation analysis of the AGXT gene.

            Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive, inherited disorder of glyoxylate metabolism arising from a deficiency of the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) enzyme, encoded by the AGXT gene. The disease is manifested by excessive endogenous oxalate production, which leads to impaired renal function and associated morbidity. At least 146 mutations have now been described, 50 of which are newly reported here. The mutations, which occur along the length of the AGXT gene, are predominantly single-nucleotide substitutions (75%), 73 are missense, 19 nonsense, and 18 splice mutations; but 36 major and minor deletions and insertions are also included. There is little association of mutation with ethnicity, the most obvious exception being the p.Ile244Thr mutation, which appears to have North African/Spanish origins. A common, polymorphic variant encoding leucine at codon 11, the so-called minor allele, has significantly lower catalytic activity in vitro, and has a higher frequency in PH1 compared to the rest of the population. This polymorphism influences enzyme targeting in the presence of the most common Gly170Arg mutation and potentiates the effect of several other pathological sequence variants. This review discusses the spectrum of AGXT mutations and polymorphisms, their clinical significance, and their diagnostic relevance.
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              The gene encoding hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR) is mutated in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type II.

              Primary hyperoxaluria type II (PH2) is a rare monogenic disorder that is characterized by a lack of the enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of hydroxypyruvate to D-glycerate, the reduction of glyoxylate to glycolate and the oxidation of D-glycerate to hydroxypyruvate. The disease is characterized by an elevated urinary excretion of oxalate and L-glycerate. The increased oxalate excretion can cause nephrolithiasis and nephrocalci-nosis and can, in some cases, result in renal failure and systemic oxalate deposition. We identified a glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR) cDNA clone from a human liver expressed sequence tag (EST) library. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified a 1198 nucleotide clone that encoded a 984 nucleotide open reading frame. The open reading frame encodes a predicted 328 amino acid protein with a mass of 35 563 Da. Transient transfection of the cDNA clone into COS cells verified that it encoded an enzyme with hydroxy-pyruvate reductase, glyoxylate reductase and D-glycerate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities. Database analysis of human ESTs reveals widespread tissue expression, indicating that the enzyme may have a previously unrecognized role in metabolism. The genomic structure of the human GRHPR gene was determined and contains nine exons and eight introns and spans approximately 9 kb pericentromeric on chromosome 9. Four PH2 patients representing two pairs of siblings from two unrelated families were analyzed for mutations in GRHPR by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. All four patients were homozygous for a single nucleotide deletion at codon 35 in exon 2, resulting in a premature stop codon at codon 45. The cDNA that we have identified represents the first characterization of an animal GRHPR sequence. The data we present will facilitate future genetic testing to confirm the clinical diagnosis of PH2. These data will also facilitate heterozygote testing and prenatal testing in families affected with PH2 to aid in genetic counseling.

                Author and article information

                Int J Nephrol
                International Journal of Nephrology
                SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
                16 June 2011
                : 2011
                1Service de Pédiatrie, Centre de référence Maladies Rénales Rares du Sud-Ouest, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux, France
                2Service de Pédiatrie, Centre de référence des Maladies Rénales Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon et Université de Lyon, 69677 Bron, France
                3Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, WC1E LBT London, UK
                4Maladies Héréditaires du Métabolisme, Centre de Biologie et Pathologie Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69677 Bron, France
                5Institut de Biologie et de Chimie des Protéines, FRE DyHTIT, CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69007 Lyon, France
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Michel Fischbach

                Copyright © 2011 Jérôme Harambat et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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