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      Management of Hyperglycemic Crises in Patients With Diabetes

      , , , , , ,

      Diabetes Care

      American Diabetes Association

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          Rates of avoidable hospitalization by insurance status in Massachusetts and Maryland.

          To determine whether uninsured and Medicaid patients have higher rates of avoidable hospitalizations than do insured patients. We used 1987 computerized hospital discharge data to select a cross-sectional sample of hospitalized patients. Population estimates from the Current Population Survey were used to estimate rates of admission, standardized for age and sex. Nonfederal acute care hospitals in Massachusetts and Maryland. All patients under 65 years of age who were uninsured, privately insured, or insured by Medicaid. Hospitalizations for obstetric and psychiatric conditions were excluded. Relative risk of admission for 12 avoidable hospital conditions (AHCs) identified by a physician panel. Uninsured and Medicaid patients were more likely than insured patients to be hospitalized for AHCs. Rates for uninsured patients were significantly greater than for privately insured patients in Massachusetts for 10 of 12 individual AHCs, and in Maryland for five of 12 AHCs. After adjustment for baseline utilization, the results were statistically significant for 10 of 12 AHCs in Massachusetts and seven of 12 AHCs in Maryland. For Medicaid patients, rates were significantly greater than for privately insured patients for all AHCs in each state before adjustment, and for nine of 12 and seven of 12 AHCs in each state, respectively, after adjustment for baseline utilization. Our findings suggest that patients who are uninsured or who have Medicaid coverage have higher rates of hospitalization for conditions that can often be treated out of hospital or avoided altogether. Our approach is potentially useful for routine monitoring of access and quality of care for selected groups of patients.
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            Disordered eating behavior and microvascular complications in young women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

            Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and eating disorders are relatively common among young women in North America. Their coexistence could lead to poor metabolic control and an increased risk of the microvascular complications of IDDM. We studied 91 young women with IDDM at base line and four to five years later to determine the prevalence and persistence of disordered eating behavior (on the basis of self-reported eating and weight-loss practices, including the intentional omission or underdosing of insulin to control weight) and the association of such eating disorders with metabolic control, diabetic retinopathy, and urinary albumin excretion. At base line, the mean age of the young women was 15+/-2 years and the duration of diabetes was 7+/-4 years. At base line, 26 of 91 young women (29 percent) had highly or moderately disordered eating behavior, which persisted in 16 (18 percent) and improved in 10 (11 percent). Of the 65 women with normal eating behavior at base line (71 percent), 14 (15 percent) had disordered eating at follow-up. Omission or underdosing of insulin lose weight was reported by 12 of 88 young women (14 percent) at base line and 30 (34 percent) at follow-up (P=0.003). At base line, the mean (+/-SD) hemoglobin A(1c) value was higher in the group with highly disordered eating behavior (11.1+/-1.2 percent) than in the groups whose eating behavior was moderately disordered (8.9+/-1.7 percent) or nondisordered (8.7+/-1.6 percent, P<0.001). Disordered eating at base line was associated with retinopathy four years later (P=0.004), when 86 percent of the young women with highly disordered eating behavior, 43 percent of those with moderately disordered eating behavior, and 24 percent of those with nondisordered eating behavior had retinopathy. Disordered eating behavior is common and persistent in young women with IDDM and is associated with impaired metabolic control and a higher risk of diabetic retinopathy.
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              Insulin omission in women with IDDM.

              To describe the extent of intentional insulin omission in an outpatient population of women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and examine its relationship to disordered eating, attitudes toward diabetes, other psychosocial factors, long-term complications, and glycemic control. Before their routinely scheduled clinic appointments, female IDDM patients who were 13-60 years of age completed a self-report survey (final n = 341). The survey included standardized questionnaires assessing disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, psychological functioning (general distress, diabetes-specific distress, and hypoglycemic fear), attitudes toward diabetes, and self-care behaviors. All subjects were assessed for glycosylated hemoglobin within 30 days of survey completion. Long-term complications were determined through chart review. Approximately 31% of the subject sample, representing women of all ages, reported intentional insulin omission, but only 8.8% reported frequent omission. Compared with non-omitters, omitters reported more disordered eating, greater psychological distress (general and diabetes-specific), more hypoglycemic fear, poorer regimen adherence, and greater fears concerning improved diabetes management (which may lead to weight gain). Omitters evidenced poorer glycemic control, more diabetes-related hospitalizations, and higher rates of retinopathy and neuropathy. Multivariate examination revealed only two variables that independently predicted omission: diabetes-specific distress and fear of improved glycemic control ("because I will gain weight"). Of the omitters, approximately half reported omitting insulin for weight-management purposes (weight-related omitters). These subjects evidenced significantly greater psychological distress, poorer regimen adherence (including more frequent omission), poorer glycemic control, and higher rates of complications than did non-weight-related omitters as well as non-omitters. Non-weight-related omitters tended to fall between weight-related omitters and non-omitters on most measures of psychological functioning, adherence, and glycemic control. These findings suggest that insulin omission is common, that it is not limited to younger women, and that the medical consequences of omission, especially frequent omission, may be severe. Although a strong association between omission and disordered eating was observed, these data suggest that this link may be complicated by important diabetes-specific factors. Patients preoccupied with eating and weight concerns may also become emotionally overwhelmed by diabetes and/or fearful of normoglycemia (and the associated weight-related consequences), thus reinforcing the desire to omit insulin and maintain elevated blood glucose levels.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                January 01 2001
                January 01 2001
                : 24
                : 1
                : 131-153
                Article
                10.2337/diacare.24.1.131
                © 2001

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