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      Acute Kidney Injury after Valvular Heart Surgery and Early Changes in Cardiac Function and Structure

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          Abstract

          Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) following heart surgery is associated with long-term risk of heart failure. It is not known if AKI following valvular heart surgery is associated with early changes in cardiac function or structure. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on 201 patients with AKI and 201 patients without AKI after valvular heart surgery, who were matched for age, sex, left ventricular function, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. AKI was defined as an increase in postoperative serum creatinine of ≥26 Vmol/l (≥0.3 mg/dl) or a relative increase of ≥50%. The two primary outcomes were changes in post- compared with preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) assessed by echocardiography. Results: The mean age was 72 years, and 33% were female. Aortic valve surgery was the most frequent procedure. The mean time from surgery to the postoperative echocardiographic examination was 4.9 days (SD 3.7). There was no significant change in postoperative mean LVEF (-3.6 vs. -4.3%; p = 0.58) or mean LVEDD (-4.7 vs. -3.9 mm; p = 0.31) in patients with AKI compared to those without AKI. Conclusion: We found no acute changes in cardiac function or structure assessed by echocardiography in patients with AKI compared to those without AKI after valvular heart surgery. i 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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          Most cited references 10

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          Is Open Access

          Cardio-renal syndromes: report from the consensus conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative

          A consensus conference on cardio-renal syndromes (CRS) was held in Venice Italy, in September 2008 under the auspices of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI). The following topics were matter of discussion after a systematic literature review and the appraisal of the best available evidence: definition/classification system; epidemiology; diagnostic criteria and biomarkers; prevention/protection strategies; management and therapy. The umbrella term CRS was used to identify a disorder of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction in the other organ. Different syndromes were identified and classified into five subtypes. Acute CRS (type 1): acute worsening of heart function (AHF–ACS) leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction. Chronic cardio-renal syndrome (type 2): chronic abnormalities in heart function (CHF-CHD) leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction. Acute reno-cardiac syndrome (type 3): acute worsening of kidney function (AKI) leading to heart injury and/or dysfunction. Chronic reno-cardiac syndrome (type 4): chronic kidney disease leading to heart injury, disease, and/or dysfunction. Secondary CRS (type 5): systemic conditions leading to simultaneous injury and/or dysfunction of heart and kidney. Consensus statements concerning epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and management strategies are discussed in the paper for each of the syndromes.
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            Distant effects of experimental renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

             Alan Kelly (2003)
            Acute renal failure results in significant morbidity and mortality, yet renal failure is not the usual cause of death in the clinical situation. We have previously reported systemic increases in the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) after renal ischemia in the mouse. In the present study, an animal model of bilateral renal ischemia was used to test the hypothesis that cytokines released with renal ischemia have effects on other organ systems. Increased levels of immunoreactive TNF-alpha and IL-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA were found in the heart after renal ischemia in the rat. This was accompanied by increases in myeloperoxidase activity, an index of tissue leukocyte infiltration, in the heart as well as the liver and lung. Functional changes in the heart 48 h after renal ischemia included increases in left ventricular end diastolic diameter, left ventricular end systolic diameter, and decreased fractional shortening by echocardiography. Evidence of apoptosis of cardiac cells was also found 48 h after an abbreviated period of renal ischemia insufficient to induce azotemia but not bilateral nephrectomy (which resulted in significant renal failure), suggesting that renal ischemia but not uremia is necessary for the apoptosis observed. It was also found that blocking the action of TNF-alpha limited cardiac apoptosis. Renal ischemia results in distant effects and the alterations observed in the heart may be important in the morbidity and mortality observed clinically.
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              Two- and three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography: clinical applications and future directions.

              Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE) is a novel technique of cardiac imaging for quantifying complex cardiac motion based on frame-to-frame tracking of ultrasonic speckles in gray scale 2D images. Two-dimensional STE is a relatively angle independent technology that can measure global and regional strain, strain rate, displacement, and velocity in longitudinal, radial, and circumferential directions. It can also quantify rotational movements such as rotation, twist, and torsion of the myocardium. Two-dimensional STE has been validated against hemodynamics, tissue Doppler, tagged magnetic resonance imaging, and sonomicrometry studies. Two-dimensional STE has been found clinically useful in the assessment of cardiac systolic and diastolic function as well as providing new insights in deciphering cardiac physiology and mechanics in cardiomyopathies, and identifying early subclinical changes in various pathologies. A large number of studies have evaluated the role of 2D STE in predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with severe heart failure. However, the clinical utility of 2D STE in the above mentioned conditions remains controversial because of conflicting reports from different studies. Emerging areas of application include prediction of rejection in heart transplant patients, early detection of cardiotoxicity in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer, and effect of intracoronary injection of bone marrow stem cells on left ventricular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The emerging technique of three-dimensional STE may further extend its clinical usefulness. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRM
                Cardiorenal Med
                10.1159/issn.1664-5502
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1664-3828
                1664-5502
                2014
                December 2014
                17 October 2014
                : 4
                : 3-4
                : 201-209
                Affiliations
                Departments of aMedicine, bEmergency Medicine and cCardiothoracic Surgery and Anesthesiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
                Author notes
                *Daniel Olsson, MD, Internal Medicine Unit, A3:02, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden), E-Mail daniel.p.olsson@ki.se
                Article
                368199 PMC4299171 Cardiorenal Med 2014;4:201-209
                10.1159/000368199
                PMC4299171
                25737684
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Paper

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