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      Clostridium perfringens en carnes crudas y cocidas y su relación con el ambiente en Costa Rica

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          Abstract

          Con el fin de establecer el riesgo de contraer una toxicoinfección alimentaria por la ingestión de carne contaminada con Clostridium perfringens, se analizaron 8 plantas procesadoras de carne en Costa Rica, utilizando la técnica del Número Más Probable por gramo (NMP/g). C. perfringens se aisló en 29 (88%) de 33 muestras de suelos aledaños a las plantas (promedio NMP/g 6,7x10²), en 70 (93%) de 75 intestinos de animales sacrificados (promedio NMP/g 3x10(4)), en 42 (55%) de 76 carnes en canal (promedio NMP/g 2,2x10(4)) y en 30 (61%) de 49 carnes procesadas o molidas, listas para su expendio (promedio NMP/g 8x10³). Adicionalmente se evaluó la presencia de esta bacteria en 10 expendios del Area Metropolitana de Costa Rica, aislándose en 15 (75%) de 20 muestras de carne molida y en 28 (36%) de 78 muestras de carne en trozo (promedio NMP/g 1,9x10³ y 7,5x10², respectivamente). Al analizar 35 muestras de carne cocida en 32 restaurantes que utilizan baños termorregulables (temperatura promedio 82ºC) sólo una fue positiva por C. perfringens (NMP/g 4, temperatura 72ºC). De un total de 1121 cepas aisladas, 250 se seleccionaron al azar para evaluar la producción de enterotoxina. Sólo 3 cepas (1,2%) fueron positivas, probablemente porque la mayoría de las cepas silvestres no son productoras de esta toxina, aunque pueden llegar a producirla como resultado de choques térmicos repetidos. Los resultados de este trabajo señalan la necesidad de adoptar medidas preventivas adecuadas y altos estándares sanitarios en la industria procesadora de carne en Costa Rica, para minimizar el riesgo de toxicoinfecciones alimentarias causadas por C. perfringens, debido a su amplia distribución y al peligro potencial para la salud del hombre.

          Translated abstract

          Clostridium perfringens in raw and cooked meats and its relation with the environment in Costa Rica. The presence of Clostridium perfringens in eight slaughter houses from Costa Rica was analyzed using the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique, in order to assess the risk of acquiring a food borne intoxication due to consumption of contaminated meat. C. perfringens was detected in 29 (88%) out of 33 soil samples collected from the slaughter house surroundings (average 6,7x10² MPN/g), as well as in 70 (93%) out of 75 intestinal contents of slaughtered animals (average 3x10(4) MPN/g), in 42 (55%) out of 76 samples of slaughtered meat (average 2,2x10(4) MPN/g) and in 30 (61%) out of 49 retail meats (average 8x10³ MPN/g). In addition, the presence of this bacterium was evaluated in ten retail meat markets located in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica, where it was isolated from 15 (75%) out of 20 samples of ground meat and from 28 (36%) de 78 stew meat samples (average 1,9x10³ and 7,5x10² MPN/g, respectively). Only one out of 35 samples of cooked meat obtained from 32 restaurants that utilize heated water baths (average temperature of 82ºC) was positive for C. perfringens (4 MPN/g, temperature 72ºC). Out of 1121 bacterial isolates obtained, 250 were evaluated for enterotoxigenicity. Only 3 (1,2%) of these tested positive for enterotoxin production, probably because most wild strains are not toxin producers, even though they can be induced to produce it as a result of repeated thermal shocks. The present results urge the adoption of adequate preventive measures and high sanitary standards in the meat processing industry in Costa Rica, in order to minimize the risk of food-borne intoxications caused by C. perfringens, due to its widespread distribution and potential human health hazard.

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          Most cited references31

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          Virulence genes of Clostridium perfringens.

          J Rood (1997)
          Clostridium perfringens causes human gas gangrene and food poisoning as well as several enterotoxemic diseases of animals. The organism is characterized by its ability to produce numerous extracellular toxins including alpha-toxin or phospholipase C, theta-toxin or perfringolysin O, kappa-toxin or collagenase, as well as a sporulation-associated enterotoxin. Although the genes encoding the alpha-toxin and theta-toxin are located on the chromosome, the genes encoding many of the other extracellular toxins are located on large plasmids. The enterotoxin gene can be either chromosomal or plasmid determined. Several of these toxin genes are associated with insertion sequences. The production of many of the extracellular toxins is regulated at the transcriptional level by the products of the virR and virS genes, which together comprise a two-component signal transduction system.
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            Molecular genetics and pathogenesis of Clostridium perfringens.

            J Rood, S Cole (1991)
            Clostridium perfringens is the causative agent of a number of human diseases, such as gas gangrene and food poisoning, and many diseases of animals. Recently significant advances have been made in the development of C. perfringens genetics. Studies on bacteriocin plasmids and conjugative R plasmids have led to the cloning and analysis of many C. perfringens genes and the construction of shuttle plasmids. The relationship of antibiotic resistance genes to similar genes from other bacteria has been elucidated. A detailed physical map of the C. perfringens chromosome has been prepared, and numerous genes have been located on that map. Reproducible transformation methods for the introduction of plasmids into C. perfringens have been developed, and several genes coding for the production of extracellular toxins and enzymes have been cloned. Now that it is possible to freely move genetic information back and forth between C. perfringens and Escherichia coli, it will be possible to apply modern molecular methods to studies on the pathogenesis of C. perfringens infections.
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              Prevalence of beta2-toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in horses with intestinal disorders.

              The incidence of a new, yet unassigned toxin type of Clostridium perfringens containing the genes for the alpha-toxin and the recently described beta2-toxin in horses with intestinal disorders is reported. The study included 18 horses suffering from typical typhlocolitis, 7 horses with atypical typhlocolitis, 16 horses with other intestinal disorders, and 58 horses without intestinal disease. In total, 20 samples of ingesta of the small and large intestines, five biopsy specimens of the intestinal wall, and 74 fecal samples were analyzed bacteriologically. C. perfringens isolates were typed for the presence of the alpha-, beta-, beta2-, and epsilon-toxin and enterotoxin genes by PCR, including a newly developed PCR for the detection of the beta2-toxin gene cpb2. beta2-Toxigenic C. perfringens was detected in samples from 13 of 25 (52%) horses with typical or atypical typhlocolitis, with a particularly high incidence in specimens of ingesta and biopsy specimens (75%), whereas only 6 of 16 specimens from horses with other intestinal diseases yielded beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens. No beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens was found in the samples from the 58 control horses, of which only one fecal sample contained C. perfringens type A. Among the samples from the 15 horses with fatal cases of typical and atypical typhlocolitis 9 (60%) were positive for beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens, whereas samples from only 4 of the 10 (40%) animals with nonfatal cases of infection were positive. We found an interesting correlation between the antibiotic-treated horses which were positive for beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens and lethal progression of the disease. No C. perfringens strains isolated in this study contained genes for the beta- and epsilon-toxins and enterotoxin. The high incidence of beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens in samples of ingesta, biopsy specimens of the intestinal wall, and feces from horses suffering or dying from typhlocolitis together with the absence of this organism in healthy horses provides strong evidence that beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens play an important role in the pathogenesis of typhlocolitis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                June 2002
                : 52
                : 2
                : 155-159
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad de Costa Rica
                Article
                S0004-06222002000200006
                dc233b34-104c-4cf5-b5e6-9679a0eca432

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                carnes cocidas,suelos,expendios de carnes,restaurantes,enterotoxina,Clostridium perfringens,slaughter houses,raw meat,cooked meat,soils,meat markets,restaurants,enterotoxin,plantas procesadoras de carne,carnes crudas

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