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      Dialysate Potassium, Dialysate Magnesium, and Hemodialysis Risk

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      Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

      American Society of Nephrology (ASN)

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d3792894e118">One of the fundamental goals of the hemodialysis prescription is to maintain serum potassium levels within a narrow normal range during both the intradialytic and interdialytic intervals. Considering the extraordinarily high rate of cardiovascular mortality in the hemodialysis population, clinicians are obligated to explore whether factors related to dialytic potassium removal can be modified to improve clinical outcomes. Observational studies and circumstantial evidence suggest that extreme concentrations of serum and dialysate potassium can trigger cardiac arrest. In this review, we provide an overview of factors affecting overall potassium balance and factors modulating potassium dialysate fluxes in dialysis, and we review data linking serum and dialysate potassium concentrations with arrhythmias, cardiovascular events, and mortality. We explore potential interactions between serum and dialysate magnesium levels and risks associated with dialysate potassium levels. Finally, we conclude with proposed dialytic and novel nondialytic approaches to optimize outcomes related to potassium homeostasis in patients on hemodialysis. Dialysis clinicians need to consider changes in the overall clinical scenario when choosing dialysate potassium concentrations, and an effective change in practice will require more frequent serum potassium monitoring and responsive dialysis care teams. </p>

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          Most cited references 55

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          Long interdialytic interval and mortality among patients receiving hemodialysis.

          Patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis have limited tolerance of metabolic and volume-related deviations from normal ranges; in addition, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is high among such patients. Given these problems, we hypothesized that a long interdialytic interval is associated with adverse events in patients receiving hemodialysis. We studied 32,065 participants in the End-Stage Renal Disease Clinical Performance Measures Project, a nationally representative sample of U.S. patients receiving hemodialysis three times weekly, at the end of calendar years 2004 through 2007. We compared rates of death and cardiovascular-related hospital admissions on the day after the long (2-day) interdialytic interval with rates on other days. The mean age of the cohort was 62.2 years; 24.2% of the patients had been receiving dialysis treatment for 1 year or less. Over a mean follow-up interval of 2.2 years, the following event rates were higher on the day after the long interval than on other days: all-cause mortality (22.1 vs. 18.0 deaths per 100 person-years, P<0.001), mortality from cardiac causes (10.2 vs. 7.5, P<0.001), infection-related mortality (2.5 vs. 2.1, P = 0.007), mortality from cardiac arrest (1.3 vs. 1.0, P = 0.004), mortality from myocardial infarction (6.3 vs. 4.4, P<0.001), and admissions for myocardial infarction (6.3 vs. 3.9, P<0.001), congestive heart failure (29.9 vs. 16.9, P<0.001), stroke (4.7 vs. 3.1, P<0.001), dysrhythmia (20.9 vs. 11.0, P<0.001), and any cardiovascular event (44.2 vs. 19.7, P<0.001). The long (2-day) interdialytic interval is a time of heightened risk among patients receiving hemodialysis. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).
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            Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate in hyperkalemia.

            Hyperkalemia (serum potassium level, >5.0 mmol per liter) is associated with increased mortality among patients with heart failure, chronic kidney disease, or diabetes. We investigated whether sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9), a novel selective cation exchanger, could lower serum potassium levels in patients with hyperkalemia.
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              Serum and dialysate potassium concentrations and survival in hemodialysis patients.

              Controlling serum potassium is an important goal in maintenance hemodialysis patients. We examined the achievement of potassium balance through hemodialysis treatments and the associated fluctuations in serum potassium. A 3-yr (July 2001 to June 2004) cohort of 81,013 maintenance hemodialysis patients from all DaVita dialysis clinics across the United States were studied. Nine quarterly-averaged serum potassium groups ( or = 6.3 mEq/L and seven increments in-between) and four dialysate potassium concentration groups were created in each of the 12 calendar quarters. The death risk associated with predialysis potassium level and dialysate potassium concentration was examined using unadjusted, case-mix adjusted, and malnutrition-inflammation-adjusted time-dependent survival models. Serum potassium correlated with nutritional markers. Serum potassium between 4.6 and 5.3 mEq/L was associated with the greatest survival, whereas potassium or = 5.6 mEq/L was associated with increased mortality. The death risk of serum potassium > or = 5.6 mEq/L remained consistent after adjustments. Higher dialysate potassium concentration was associated with increased mortality in hyperkalemic patients with predialysis serum potassium > or = 5.0 mEq/L. A predialysis serum potassium of 4.6 to 5.3 mEq/L is associated with the greatest survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Hyperkalemic patients who undergo maintenance hemodialysis against lower dialysate bath may have better survival. Limitations of observational studies including confounding by indication should be considered when interpreting these results.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
                JASN
                American Society of Nephrology (ASN)
                1046-6673
                1533-3450
                November 30 2017
                December 2017
                December 2017
                October 09 2017
                : 28
                : 12
                : 3441-3451
                Article
                10.1681/ASN.2017060640
                5698078
                28993507
                © 2017

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