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      Dental fear and anxiety in older children: an association with parental dental anxiety and effective pain coping strategies

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          Abstract

          An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA) has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS), Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS), Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS ( r=0.35, P<0.001) and CDAS ( r=0.32, P<0.001). Fathers’ CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS ( r=0.19, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in children’s fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings may help to devise interventions that will prevent or alleviate children’s DFA.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Coping theory and research: past, present, and future.

           R Lazarus (2015)
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            Dental fear/anxiety and dental behaviour management problems in children and adolescents: a review of prevalence and concomitant psychological factors.

            The objectives of this article were to examine the literature published from 1982 to 2006 and to evaluate prevalence of dental fear and anxiety (DFA) and dental behaviour management problems (DBMP) in children and adolescents, and their relationships to age, sex, general anxiety, temperament, and general behavioural problems. A broad search of the PubMed database was performed using three combinations of search terms. A large proportion of the identified articles could not be used for the review owing to inadequate endpoints, measures or poor study design. Thirty-two papers of acceptable quality were identified and reviewed. The prevalence of both DFA and DBMP were estimated to 9%, with a decrease in prevalence with age. DFA/DBMP were more frequent in girls. DFA/DBMP were related to general fear and both internalizing and externalizing behavioural problems, although these relationships were not clear-cut. Temperament was related to both DFA and DBMP but with different temperamental characteristics, while general behavioural problems mainly correlated with DBMP. DFA/DBMP are common, and several psychological factors are associated with the development of these problems. In order to better understand these relationships, a number of issues concerning design of research and measurement of DFA/DBMP have to be dealt with.
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              Development of a dental anxiety scale.

               N Corah (2015)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2014
                20 August 2014
                : 7
                : 515-521
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Health Center Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
                [2 ]Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia
                [3 ]Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
                [4 ]Department of Anatomy, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia
                [5 ]Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Livia Puljak, University of Split School of Medicine, Soltanska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia, Tel +385 21 557 807, Fax +385 21 557 811, Email livia@ 123456mefst.hr
                Article
                jpr-7-515
                10.2147/JPR.S67692
                4149462
                © 2014 Coric et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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